Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/857

This page needs to be proofread.


NEW HAMPSHIRE


785


NEW HAMPSHIRE


to them, even when they cause him excessive physical exertion. The latest statistics assign to the mission: 26 missionaries, 21 brothers, 38 sisters (all of the Sa- cred Heart of Issoudun), 15 catechists, 1500 Catholics, 7 stations with church and school, 2 orphanages, 28 schools with 1400 pupils. The Prefecture Apostolic of Dutch New Guinea was separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Batavia on 22 December, 1902. Attended at first by the Jesuits, it was later entrusted to the Missionary Fathers of the Sacred Heart of Issoudun. The present prefect Apostolic is the Rev. Father Noyens (residence on the Island of Langur), appointed in January, 1903. The mission now contains 14 Fathers and 11 Brothers of the Sacred Heart; 7 Sis- ters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart; 16 native cate- chists; 2911 CathoUcs; 210 catechumens; 4 churches with resident prie.st; 12 churches without residence; 12 sub-stations; 16 schools with 300 pupils. (ForGer- man New Guinea, see Kaisiouwilhelmsl.^nd.)

Rye. Bibliography of New G'tinua in Supplementary Papers, Royal Geogr, Hoc. (London, 1SS4) ; Krieger, etc., A^. G. (6 vols., Ber- lin, 18S9) ; MacGregor, British N. G. (London, 1897) ; Thomson, British N. G. (London, 1892); Geogr. Journal, XXXII (London, 1908), 266 sqq., with excellent map of part of British territory; Imperial Blue Book (London) ; Goverjimenl Handbook of the Terri- tory of Papua; Statist. Jahrb. fiir das deutsche Reich (Berlin); Nachrichten ilber Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (Berhn); Tijdschrift van het koninklijk institut voor taal~, land, en volkenkunde van Neder- landsch-IndiS Cs Gravenhage, 1855 — ); Deutsche Rundschau fiir Geog. u. Statistik, XXXII (Vienna, 1910), 433^2. Concerning the Catholic missions, see Julien, Les missions de la Nouvelle- Guinie (Issoudun, 1898) ; Piglet, Les missions cathoL, IV, 369- 95; Annuaire pont. cathol. (1910), 376.

Thomas Kennedy.

New Hampshire, the most northerly of the thir- teen original states of the United States, lying be- tween 70° 37' and 72° 37' west long., and between 42° 40' and 45° 18' 23" north lat. It comprises an area of 9305 square miles, and according to the census of 1910, has a population of 430,572. New Hampshire is bounded on the south by Massachusetts, the dividing line beginning on the Atlantic .shore at a point three miles north of the Merrimac; thence westerly, follow- ing the course of the river at the same distance to a point three miles north of Pawtucket Falls, thence westerly fifty-five miles to the western bank of the Connecticut; on the east by the Atlantic for about eighteen miles from said southern boundary to the middle of the mouth of Piscataqua harbour, thence by the State of Maine to the Canada line, the dividing line between Maine and New Hampshire beginning at the middle of the mouth of Piscataqua harbour, thence up the middle of the river to its most northerly head, thence north, two degrees west, to the Canada line; on the north by the Province of Quebec, the dividing line passing along the highlands that divide the rivers emptying into the St. Lawrence from those emptying into the sea; on the west by the Province of Quebec, southerly to the forty-fifth parallel of lati- tude, and by the State of Vermont, the line passing from the north-west head of the Connecticut river along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth paral- lel of north latitude (Treaty of 1783), and thence fol- lowing the western bank of that river to the Massa- chusetts line. The south-west part of the Isles of Shoals, off the coast of New Hampshire, belongs to that state, the rest to Maine, the dividing line passing between Cedar and Smutty Nose Islands, Maine and Star Island, the most populous of the group in New Hampshire.

Physical Characteristics. — New Hampshire is a state of hills and mountains, sloping gradually from north to south. A range of hills runs through the state from the southern boundary nearly to its north- ern extremity, buttressed at uneven intervals, south of the White Mountains, by Mounts Monadnock, Kearsarge, and Cardigan; a little further north it spreads into the plateau of the White Mountains, some thirty miles long by forty-five wide, and from sixteen to eighteen hundred feet high. From this pla- X.— 50


teau arise some two hundred [leaks in two groups: the White and Sandwich Mountains to the eastward, and the Franconia to the westward. This range divides the waters of the Androscoggin, the Saco, and the Merrimac rivers on the east from those of the Con- necticut on the west. The White Mountain region is strikingly grand. Here Mount Washington (6290 feet) and Mounts Adams, Jefferson, Clay, Monroe, and others each rise nearly a mile in height. The fame of the beauty and subhmitv of this region is world-wide and attracts roiinlli-s \i^ii.,i~ In the south-eastern por- tion of the state, from the Merrimac valley to the sea, the land is lower and much of it fer- tile. Two-thirds of the largest nties and towns of the state are in (In section. The < h mate is rugged .uid healthy, the air pure and bracing, the summers are short and change- able, but the au- Sul i \Tu Uvmi shire tumn is generally

delightful. The winters arc very severe, though less so in the valleys of the Connecticut and Merrimac. Cold weather usually lasts eight months, with snow half that period.

Resources. — Agriculture: The soil of the state out- side the mountain regions is well watered and fairly productive, and good crops are raised of the ordinary farm staples: hay, corn, oats, potatoes, etc., but the chief food supply comes from the west. Industries: By the last census (1900) the gross value of the manu- factures in the state is placed at $123,610,904, the net value at $85,008,010. These manufactures are largely confined to the cities and leading towns, which contain 65.8 per cent, of the establishments, manufac- ture 79.2 per cent, of the value, and pay 81.4 per cent, of the wages. Among the chief manufactures are boots and shoes, about .$23,500,000; leather goods, 1123,000,000; lumber, .$9,125,000; woollens, $7,700,- 000; paper and pulp, $7,125,000; machinery, cars, car- riages, and furniture. Minerals: Chief among the mineral products is granite, of which there are valuable quarries at Concord, Hooksett, Mason, and other towns. Steatite or soapstone is also found in quan- tity at Francestown, Orford, and elsewhere; the quarry at Francestown being one of the most valuable in the Union. Graphite, mica, limestone, and slate are also found. Cormnerce: New Hampshire has but one sea- port, Portsmouth, wliich has considerable coa,sting trade. The importatiim f)f foodstuffs and raw ma- terial, and the distribution of her vast volume of man- ufactures constitute an important interstate and do- mestic commerce, carried on chiefly by rail. Foreign importations come chiefly through Boston. The state is covered by a network of steam and electric railroads, connecting every city and town of any im- portance with the business centres.

Educational System. — The .state has always care- fully provided for education. Under the Constitution (Part II, art., 82), it is the duty of the legislature and magistrate to cherish the interests of literature, the sciences, and all seminaries and public schools; to en- courage private and public institutions, rewards, and immunities for the promotion of arts, sciences, etc.; but no money raised by taxation shall ever be applied for the use of the schools or institutions of any relig- ious denomination. The law directs that every child from eight to fourteen shall attend school at least twelve weeks each year. Practically every town is a