about one hunilrccl :mil tifty pc-rsons, almost all con- vcrts, attending it. The followinR year Father Bar- ber w:m sent by Hishop Fenwick to visit the eastern part of the diocese and found one hundred Catholics in Dover, eager for a church. In 1S2.S Father Charles P'french wjis jissigned to that mission, which extended from Dover to East port and Bangor. Father P'french built the church of St. .-Moy.sius at Dover (dedicated lS3li), the second Catliolic church in the state. In 1S;H p'ather Lee wjis ap|)oinlcd resident pastor, and the following year he wjis succeeded by Futh(T Pat rick Canovan. In 1835 the Catholic population of the slate is given as 38.'); in 1842 it was placed at 1370, ministered to by Fathers Daly and C.inovan. Then came the emigration from InlMiid (1815). In Man- chester, X. H., in 1.S48 there were five hundred Catho- lics, and Bishop Fit zpat rick sent thither Rev. William McDonald, a wi.se, far-seeing, zealous, and devoted priest. A church was soon built, the present church of St. .\nne, rebuilt in 1852. In 1857 h<- built a con- vent near the church for the Sisters of Mercy, organ- ized schools, using the ba-scment of the church till he could build or purchtise buildings. The influx of Irish Catholics continuing, in 1867 he built St. Joseph's church, now the cathedral. He secured eligible sites for a church, a school, and charitable purposes; an or- phan asylum, a Home for Aged Women, and a fine brick school for girls. Emigration from Canada set in, which he duly cared for, as he spoke French, till in 1871 a Canadian i>riest, Rev. J. H. Chevalier, was sent to Manchester, where he built a fine church and devel- oped a flourishing [larish. Father McDonald died in isv^o, greatly belovetl, honoured, and lamented by his fellow citizens, irrespective of creed. A beautiful mortuarj' chajiel was erected by Bishop Bradley over his remains. Meanw liile such men as the late Fathers O'Donnell and Millet te of Nashua, Barry of Concord, Murphy of Dover, O'Callaghan of Portsmouth and other zealous priests built up fine parishes in the chief manufacturing centres.
In 1853 Maine and New Hampshire were created a diocese. Father David W. Bacon, con.secrated bishop in 1855, died in 1874, and was succeeded (1875) by the Right Rev. .r. A. Ilealy. In 1884 the state was made the Diocese of Manchester w'ith Father Denis M. Bradley, then pastor of St. Joseph's, as its first bishop. Indcr Bi.>;hop Bradley, a man of great mental power and breadth of view, of (|uick perception and sound judgment, singularly .sweet in disposition, an able ad- ministrator and utterly devoted to his caUing, the progress of the diocese was almost incredible. The tide of French Canadian immigration to the manufac- turing centres of the st.ate now increased tremendously and the new bishoj) spared no pains to procure the best pastors to care for the ever-increasing flock. Two other magnificent brick churches for this element, St. Mar>s and St. George's, with schools for each sex, and convents for the sisters, were built, together with all the usual parish institutions. In 1884 there were 45,(X)0 Catholics in the state, with 27 churches, 5 con- vents, 40 priests, and 3(XX) children in the parochial schools. After nineteen years, there were 100,000 Catholics, 91 churches, 24 chapels, 36 stations, 107 priests, 12,(XX) children in the parochial schools, 4 hos- pitals, 4 homes for aged women. Bishop Bradley died 13 December, 1903, and was succeeded in 1904 by Bishop John B. Delaney, whose untimely death in June, 1906, cut short his administration. His succes- sor is the present bishop, Right Rev. George Albert ("luertin. The new prelate has evidently brought with him the same prudence, zeal, and administrative ability that marked his career as a priest, and his work thus far has already borne rich fruit. "There are now in the diocese over 126,000 Catholics, with 118 secular pricfcts, and 19 regulars; 99 churches, 24 chapels, and 34 .stations; over 13,000 children in the parochial Bchook, 7 orphan asylums, caring for 718 orphans, 5
homes for working girls, with many other charitable institutions. No Catholic has yet held the office of Judge of the Supreme Court; recently a Catholic, Hon. John M. Mitchell of Concord, was appointed judge of the Superior Court of the State.
Relkiious Polity. — Freedom of worship is now recognized as "a natural and unalienable right " under the Constitution; and no one shall be molested in per- son or property for exercising the same as his con- science dict.ates, or for his sentiments or persuasion; or be compelled to pay to the support of another per- suasion; and no subordination of one denomination to another shall ever be establisheti by law (Bill of Rights, Art. 5). All work, business, and labour of one's secular calling to the disturbance of others on Sunday, except works of necessity and mercy, are for- bidden under penalty of fine and imprisonment, and no person shall engage in any play, game or sport on that day (Gen. laws; Ch. 271). The form of oath of office prescribed in the Constitution is, "I do solemnly swear, etc. — so help me God." Or, in case of persons scrupulous of swearing; "This I do under the pains and penalties of perjury". The same forms are fol- lowed in respect to witnesses in the courts, but any other form may be used which the affiant professes to believe may be more binding on the conscience. Open denial of the existence of God, or wilful blasphemy of the name of God, Jesus Christ, or the Holy Ghost, cursing or reproaching His word contained in the Bible, are punishable with severe fine and sureties for good behaviour for a year. Profane cursing or swear- ing is punishable by fine of one dollar for first offence, and two dollars for subsequent offences. Opening the legislature by prayer is a matter of custom since 1745, though as early as 1680 the Assembly was opened by prayer. Christmas Day is recognized as a legal holi- day. Under the Puritan regime whoever kept Christ- mas Day had to pay five pounds, over twenty-four dollars (Commissioners Rep. to King). The seal of confession is not recognized by law. No instances of its being attacked have arisen, and probably public opinion woidd frown down any such attempt.
Incorpor.vtion of Charities. — Apart from special incorporation by the legislature, easily obtainable, any five persons may associate themselves together and become a corporation for religious or charitable purposes, by filing articles of agreement with their town clerk, and the Secretary of State. The laws could not well be more liberal toward such societies. A religious society, though not incorporated, is a corpo- ration in this state, for the purpose of holding and using donations or grants worth not more than $5000 a year. Any officers, such as trustees or deacons, of any church, if citizens, shall be deemed a corporation, to hold any grants or donations of the above value, either to them and their successors, to their church or to the poor. No religious society shall be dissolved, or its right to any property affected, by failure to hold its annual meeting, to choose its oflRcers, or for any informality in electing or qualifying its officers, or for any defect in its records.
Taxation. — All "Houses of Public Worship" are exempt from taxation; also twenty-five hundred dollars of the value of parsonages owned by religious societies and occupied by their pastors; also school houses and "Seminaries of learning". Ordained ministers are exempt from jury duty, but not from military duty. The sale of liquor is regulated by a stringent high licence law, sale for sacramental pur- poses being expres.sly recognized and coming under a low licence fee, ten dollars.
Marri.'^ge and Divorce. — The age of consent, for females is thirteen, for males fourteen. Marriages to the degree of first cousins are incestuous and void, and the issue illegitimate. Marriages may be solem- nized by a justice of the peace in his county, or by an ordained minister in good standing, resident in the