Maurus, Sylvesteh, writer on philosophy and (ifoVT^V'ig'^BEsS?' - theology, b. at Spoleto, ;il Dec, 1619; d. in Romp, 13 aurin'Revuede's sciences Jan., 1G87. He entered the Society of Jesus, 21 April, 1636. After finishing his course of studies and teach- ing humanities at the College of Maeerata, he held in the same ])lace the chair of philosophy for three years, an<l subsequently in Rome for several years. Then he was promoted to the chair of theology at the Roman College, and remained in this position for a consider- able number of years. For a period he was also rector of the latter institution. The mental endowment of Father Maurus was a happy combination of the specu- lative and the practical turn of mind. His doctrine was noted for its soundness and solidity; at the same time, he constantly put in practice St. Paul's principle, " not to be more wise than it behoveth to be wise, but to be wise unto sobriety". Though he was a good philosopher and theologian, he was a better religious. Those well aci|uainted with him are e()ii\'inceil that he never lost his baptismal innocence. Neither his holiness nor his learning made him a disagreeable com- panion or an undesirable friend. It would be hard to say whether he was more admired or loved by those who came into contact with him.
The following works of Father Maurus deserve mention: (1) " Qurestionum philosophicarimi Sylvestri Mauri, Soc Jesu, in Collegio Romano Philosophise Professoris". This work is divitled into four books, and appeared at Rome in 1658. A second edition was issued in 1G70. The latest edition, in three volumes, is prefaced by a letter of Father Liberatore, and appeared in Le Mans, 1875-76. (2) " Aristotehsopera quEB extant omnia, brevi paraph rasi, ac litterae per- petuo inhserente explanatione illustrata". The work appeared in six volumes, Rome, 1668. The second volume, containing Aristotle's moral philosophy, was edited anew in 1696-98. The whole work was pub- lished again in Paris, 1885-87, by Fathers Ehrle, Felch- lin, and Beringcr; this edition formetl part of the collection entitled " Biljliotheea Theologian et Philoso- phite scholasticae". (3) " Quajstionum theologicarum 11. 6", publishedat Rome, 1676-79; this work contains* his chief support at Subiaco. By St. Gregory the all the principal theological treatises. (4) "Opustheol- Great (Lib. Dialog., II) he is described as a model of ogicum", published in three folio volumes at Rome, religious virtues, especially of obedience. According 1687, treats of all the main questions of theology ac- to the Vita ("Acta SS." II Jan., 320, and Mabillon, curately, concisely, and clearly. The first volume " Acta SS. O. S. B.", I, 274) he went to France in 543, contains some information concerning the author, and and became the founder and superior of the abbey at also his picture engraved liy Louis Lenfant. Glanfeuil, later known by his name. This Vita, Hurter, Nomenclator: Sommervooel, Biblwthtque de la C.
de J., V, c. 765 sq.
monaslh-es helgcs in Revue Ilf'nMicline, VI (1S89). ^42-49; Idem. Leltres in^dites de henedictins de St-MauT Ouallerio in Revue BfnMicHne, XXIV . Les fondatcurs de la conQr^gation de St-Maur
eccUsiastiques, II (1902), 143 8q., 230 sq., 532 sq.; Chavin de Malan, Bibliotheque des ecrivains de la cOTlffregation de St-Maur (Lo Mans, 1881); Uantier, Rapports sur la correspondancc inedite des binidictins de St-Maur (Paris, 1857); De i.a Bok- DERlE. Correspondance huttorique des bentdictins brctons (Paris, ISSO); De Lam.\, Bihliothi^que des icrivains de la eongrt'fjalion de St-Maur (Munich, 1882); Gioas, Lettres des b&nvdictins de la congrtgation de St-Maur (1652-1741) (Copenhagen. 1893); Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen der Katholischen Kirche. I (Paderbom, 1907). 305-13; Helyot, Hislaire des ordres rcliffieux et militaires, VI (Paris, 1792). 288-98; Ingold, Histoire de I'cdition bi-nedictine de St-Auffustin (Paris, 1902); KuKULA, Die M aurincrausgabc des Augustinus (Vienna, 1890- 98); Le Cere, Bibliotheque historique et critique des auteurs de la congregation de Saint-Maur (The Hague. 1726); Lecomte, Vhistoire lilti-raire de la France par Dam Rivet et atUres in Revue Mabillon. II (1906). 210-S5; III (1907). 22-42. 134-46; McCarthy, The lives of the principal writers of thr ( 'nnprrffntum of St-Maur (Ixjndon. 1868); Mangenot. Lcs tmvmu des bene- diclins de St-Maur. de St-Vanne et St- Hydulphe sur les anciennes versions Mines de la Bible (Amiens, 1889); Fez, Bihliotheea benedictino-mauriana (Augsburg. 1716); Robert. Supph- mcnt It r histoire litth^aire de la con- gregation de St-Maur (Paris, 1881); Sicard, Les etudes classiques avant la revolution (Paris, 1887); Stein, Le premier supi-rieur ghieral de la con- gregation de St-Maur in Archives de la France Monastique, V (Ligug^, 1908\ 51-89; Tassi.v. Histoire littcraire dc la congregation de St-Maur (Brussels. 1770); Vabcti. Los benedicli7m.i de San Mauro (Palma de Mallnrca, 1899); VAJiEU Les Benediclins , I, Sl- Maur a St-Gcrmain-des-Pris (Paris,
1896); WiLHELM ET BERUiCRE, N ou-
veau supplement it Vhistoire litteraire delacongregationdeSt-Maur.l (Paris, 1908): ZoCKLER in Herzog and IiA.vcK,Real-Encyklopadie,a.v. See also the bibliographies attached to the articles on celebrated Maurists in The Catbouc Encyclopedia. Leslie A. St. L. Toke.
See Port Louis,
Mauritius de Portu. See
Maurus, Saint, deacon, son of Equitius. a nobleman of Rome, but claimed also by Fondi, Gallipoli, La- vello etc. (Delehaye, " Legends", London, 1907, 59); d. 584. Feast, 15 Jan. He is represented as an abbot with crozier, or with book and censer, or holding the weights and measures of food and drink given him by his holy master. He is the patron of charcoal- burners, coppersmiths etc.- — in Belgium of shoe- makers — and is invoked against gout, hoarseness etc. (Kerler). He was a disciple of St. Benedict, and
Perugino, Church of St. Peter,
ascribed to a companion, the monk Faustus of Monte Cassino, has been severely attacked. Delehaye (loc. cit., 106) calls it a forgery of Abbot Odo of Glanfeuil in the ninth century, but Adlhoch (Stud. u. Mittheil., 1903,3; 1906, 185) makes a zealous defence. On the Signum S. Mauri, a bles.sing of the sick with invoca- tion of St. Maurus given in the Appendix of Rituale Romanum, see "Studien u. Mittheil." (1882), 165.
Anal. Boll. (1907), 342; Bibt. Hag. Lot., 845; Bihlmeyer, Hag. Jahreshericht (Kempten. 1908), 228; Revue Bhied.. XII, 326; XIII. 170; XIV, 23. 315; XVI. 4.30; Landreau, Les vicissi- tude.it de Vabbaye de S. Maur aux VIJI' et IX' si^cles (Angers, 1905); Idem. Les deux hist, manuscrites de Vabbaye de S. M. (Angers. 1907); Chevalier, Bio-Bibl.. s. v. Maur, St.
Maurus, Rabanus. See Rabanus Mabuus.
A. J. Maas.
Maury, Jean-Siffrein, cardinal and statesman, bom at Valreas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on 10 May, 1817. He made his early studies in his native town and at Avignon, and by the age of nineteen had completed his theological course. He then proceeded to Paris and entered the College de France. Ordained in 1769, he attracted the attention of a grand-nephew of F^nelon by a eu- logy of the great archbishop, and was appointed Vicar-General of the Diocese of Lombez in Gascony. In 1772 he was selected by the Academy to preach the panegyric of St. Louis at the Louvre. His success was such that the audience interrupted him with loud