A complete list of his writings is given in Retana, "Vida y escritos del Dr. Rizal" (Madrid, 1907).
Ckaiq, The Story of Jose Rizal (Manila, 1909); El Dr. Rizal y su obra in La Juventud (Barcelona, Jan., Feb., 1897); Pi, La muerte cristiana del Dr. Rizal (Manila, 1910); Craig, Los errores de Retana (Manila, 1910.)
Philip M. Finegan. Robber Council of Ephesus. See Ephesus.
Robbia, Andrea della, nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is often difficult to distinguish between his works and Luca's. His, undoubtedly, are the medal- lions of infants for the Foundling Hospital, Florence, and the noble Annunciation over the inner entrance; the Meeting of S. Francis and S. Dominic in the loggia of S. Paolo; the charming Madonna of the Architects, the Virgin adoring the Divine Child in the Crib and other pieces in the Bargello; the fine St. Francis at Assisi; the Madonna della Querela at Viterbo; the high altar (marble) of S. Maria delle Grazie at Arezzo; the rich and variegated decora- tions of the vaulted ceiling, porch of Pistoia Cathedral, and many other works.
Andrea had several sons, of whom Giovanni, Girolamo, Luca the Younger, and Ambrogio are the best known. Giovanni exe- cuted the famous reliefs for the Ospedale del Ceppo, Pistoia; and Girolamo worked much in France, where he died. The Della Robbia school gradually lost power and inspiration, the later works being often over- crowded with figures and full of 1^7 conflicting colour. Uif
See bibl. of Robbia, Luca di Simone ^ .
DELLA. M. L. Handley.
Robbia, Luca di Simonk DELLA, sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, and then to ha\c worked in marble and bronzi under Ghiberti. He was earl\ invited to execute sculptures t< t the Cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore and the Campanile. The latter — representing Philosophy Arithmetic, Grammar, Orpheus, and Tubalcain (1437) — are st in character. For the organ-gallery of the cathe- dral he made the famous panels of the Cantorie, groups of boys singing and playing upon musical in- struments (1431-8), now in the Museo del Duomo. For the north sacristy he made a bronze door; figures of angels bearing candles and a fine glazed earthen- ware relief of Christ rising from the tomb over the entrance are also of his execution. Above the en- trance to the southern sacristy he made the Ascension (1446). From this time on, Luca seems to have worked almost entirely in his new ware. The medium was not unknown, but by dint of experimenting he brought his material to great perfection. The colours are brilliant, fresh, and beautiful in quality, the blue especially being quite inimitable. The stanniferous glaze, or enamel, contained various minerals and was Luca's own secret; in the firing, it became exceed- ingly hard, durable, and bright. Luca's design is generally an architectural setting with a very few figures, or half figures, and rich borders of fruits and flowers. He excels in simplicity and loveliness of composition. His madonnas have great charm, dignity, and grace. In the earlier productions colour is used only for the background, for the stems and
LUC.V DELM. IlOBBI.\
Detail from the fresco by Vasari, in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
leaves of lilies, and the eyes; an occasional touch of gold is added in coronal or lettering. Later Luca used colour more freely. The Delia Robbia earthen- wares are so fresh and beautiful and so decorative that even in Luca's time they were immediately in great request. They are seen at their best in Florence. A few of the principal ones are: the crucifix at S. Miniato and the ceiling of the chapel in which it is found; the medallions of the vault (centre, the Holy Ghost; corners, the Virtues) in the chapel of Cardinal Jacopo of Portugal, also at S. Miniato; the decora- tions of the Pazzi chapel at Sta. Croce; the armorial bearings of the Arti at Or San Michele; the Madonna of S. Pierino; the exquisite street lunette of Our Lady and Angels in the Via dell' Agnolo ; the tomb of Bishop Benozzo Federighi at the Sta. Trinity ; and, in the Bargello, the Madonna of the Roses, the Madonna of the Apple, and a number of equally fine reliefs. Of his works outside Florence may be mentioned: the Madonna at Urbino; the tabernacle at Im- pruneta, the vault panels of S. Giobbe, Venice (sometimes said to be by the school only) ; medal- lions of Justice and Temperance, Museum of Cluny, Paris; arms of Rened'Anjou, London, South Kensington Museum, and other works in Naples, Sicily, and else- where. The admirable and much disputed group of the Visitation at S. Giovanni Fuor- civitas, Pistoia, is attributed both to Luca and to Andrea.
Barbet de Jouy, Les Della Robbia (Paris, 1855); MOntz, Hist, de I'Art ■pendant la Renaissance (Paris, 1895); Reymond, Les Della Robbia (Florence, 1897); Crutwell, Luca and Andrea Delia Robbia (London, 1902).
M. L. Handley.
Robert, Saint, founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurillac, Au- vergne, about 1000; d. in Au- vergne, 1067. On his father's side he belonged to the family of the Counts of Aurillac, who had given birth to St. G<iraud. He studied at Brioude near the basilica of St-Julien, in a school open to the nobility of Auvergne by the canons of that city. Hav- ing entered their community, and being ordained priest, Robert distinguished him- self by his piety, charity, apostolic zeal, eloquent discourses, and the gift of miracles. For about forty years he remained at Cluny in order to live under the rule of his compatriot saint, Abb6 Odilo. Brought back by force to Brioude, he started anew for Rome in order to consult the pope on his project. Benedict IX encouraged him to retire with two companions to the wooded plateau south-east of Auvergne. Here he built a hermitage under the name of Chaise-Dieu (CasaDei). The renown of his virtues having brought him numer- ous disciples, he was obliged to build a monastery, which he placed under the rule of Saint Benedict (1050). Leo IX erected the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, which became one of the most flourishing in Christen- dom. At the death of Robert it numbered 300 monks and had sent multitudes all through the centre of France. Robert also founded a community of women at Lavadieu near Brioude. Through the elevation of Pierre Roger, monk of Chaise-Dieu, to the sovereign pontificate, under the name of Clement VI, the abbey reached the height of its glory. The body of Saint Robert, preserved therein, was burned by the Hugue- nots during the religious wars. His work was de- stroyed by the French Revolution, but there remain