Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 13.djvu/486

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one attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas, may be seen in Bona, "Rerum liturgicarum", II, 10, §4 (ed. Paris, 1672), p. 41S. The skeleton of a Mass at the blessing of palms retains not onh' a Preface but also a Sanctus, sung to the original "simple" tone. The many other prayers (.blessing of the font, ordinations, etc.) that are modelled on the Preface diverge from its scheme as the}' proceed and do not end with a Sanctus.

IV. Present Rite. — At high Mass as soon as the celebrant has sung the last word of the Preface (dicentes) the choir begins the Sanctus, continuing his phrase. They should sing it straight through, includ- ing the Benedictus. The custom of waiting till after the Elevation and then adding the Benedictus, once common, is now abolished bj' the rubric ("De ritibus eer\-andis in cantu missae", VII) of the Vatican Grad- ual. It was a dramatic effect that never had any warrant. Sanctus and Benedictus are one text. Meanwhile the deacon and subdeacon go up to the right and left of the celebrant and say the Sanctus in a low voice with him. Every one in the choir and church kneels (Cffrim. Episcop., II, VIII, 69). The hand-bell is usually rung at the Sanctus; but at Rome there is no bell at all at high Mass. While the choir sings the celebrant goes on ■wnth the Canon. They must finish or he must wait before the Consecration. At low Mass the celebrant after the Preface, bowing and laj-ing the folded hands on the altar, continues the Sanctus in a lower voice {vox media). The bell is rung three times. Although the rubrics of the Missal do not mention this it is done everywhere by approved custom. It may be noticed that of the many chants of the Sanctus in the Gradual the simple one only (for ferias of Advent and Lent, requiems and the blessing of palms) continues the melody of the Preface and so presumably represents the same musical tradition as our Preface tone. As in the case of the Preface its mode is doubtful.

DuBAKDUS, Rationale divinorum officiorum, IV, .34; Bona, Rerum lilurgiarum libri duo, II, X, 4; Benedict XIV, De SS. Sacrificio misstE, II, XI, 18-19; Gavanti-Merati, Thesaurus S. RUuum, II, VII, 80-86; Gihr, Das h. Messopfer (Freiburg, 1897), 524-530.

Adrian Fortescue.

Sancy, Achille Harlay de. See Harlay, Family of.

Sandals, Epi.scopal. — Form and Present Use. — UnUke the ancient sandals, which consisted merely of Boles fastened to the foot by straps, the episcopal sandals are in the form of low shoes, and resemble slippers. The sole is of leather; the upper part, gen- erally orna- mented with embroidery, is made at the present day of silk or velvet. No cross is re- quired upon the sandals; at Rome this is an exclu- sively papal privilege. With the sandals are worn the liturgical stockings, caligte. The stockings, which are of silk, are either knitted or are made by sewing together pieces of silk fabric that have "been cut a suitable shape; they are worn over the ordinary stockings. The privilege of wearing the sandals and caligfe belongs only to bishops. They may be worn by abbots and other prelates only by special privilege from the pope and only so far as this privilege grants. The pontifical foot^wearis used only at pontifical solemn Mass and at functions performed during the same, as ordination, but not on other occasions, as, for example, Confirmation, solemn Vespers etc. It is therefore in

Bishop's Sandal, Earlt XVIII Centurt Royal Kunatgewerbemuseum, Berlin

Sandal of Bishop Berxhard of Hildesheim XII Century, The Cathedral, Hildesheim

the most exact sense of the word a vestment worn during the Mass. The liturgical colour for the day decides the colour of the sandals and caligce; there are, however, no black stockings or sandals, as the bishop does not make use of the pontifical foot-wear either at masses for the dead or on Good Friday. Sandals and stockings are only customary in the Latin Rites, and are unknown in the Oriental Rites.

History. — Sandals and stockings belong to the liturgical vestments supported by the earhest evi- dence. They are depicted upon the monuments of the fifth cen- tury, for in- stance upon mosaics of San Satiro near San Am- brogio at Mi- lan, and on those of the sixth century, e. g. the mo- saics in San Vitale at Ra- venna. Orig- inally the sandals were called campagi, the stock- ings udones. The shoes were given the name san- dalia probably during the eighth to the ninth cen- tury, and this name was first applied to them in the north; the designation caligoe for udones came into use in the tenth century, also in the north. As regards the original form and material of the campagi, they were slippers that covered only the tip of the foot and the heel, and must have been fastened to the foot by straps. This slipper was made of black leather. The stockings were, very likely, made of linen, and were white in colour. In the earliest period the campagi and udones were by no means ex- clusively an episcopal ornament, as they were worn by deacons. Indeed this foot-covering was not re- served exclusively for the clergy, as not only the monuments show that the campagi and udones were worn by the laity, but Lydus also testifies to this usage (De mag., I, xvii). Campagi and udones were originally worn in the post-Constantine era as a mark of distinction by certain persons of rank, and were probably copied from the foot-wear of the an- cient senators. Their use gradually became custom- ary among the higher clergy, especially when these appeared in their full official capacity for the celebra- tion of the Liturgy. During the eighth and ninth cen- turies also the Roman subdcacoiis and acohies wore a distinctive foot-wear, the subtalarcs, which, however, were simpler than the campagi, and had no straps. The sandals and stockings became a specifically epis- copal vestment about the tenth century. Apparently as early as the twelfth century, or at least in the second half of the thirteenth century, they were no longer worn even by the cardinal deacons of Rome. The privilege of wearing the sandals and caligw was first granted to an abbot (Fulrad of St. Denis) in 757 by Stephen IIL This is, however, an isolated case, as it was only after the last quarter of the tenth cen- tury, and especially after the twelfth century that it became customary to grant abbots this privilege

Development of Shape. — The ca[ig(r seem to have expf'rienccd no particular development. In the later Midfile Ages they were, as a rule, made of silk. The earliest enforcement in respect to caligo' of the regulations for liturgical colours seems to have been at Rome, but even here probably not until the fourteenth century. The sandals retained substantially their original form until the tenth (century. Then straps were replaced by three or five tongues reaching to the ankle, extensions of the upper leather upon the point of the foot, and these were fastened at the ankle by means of a string. In the twelfth century these