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the Aimuaire pontifical Catholique," an invaluable combat against godless education and the separa-

work, compiled with precision, exactitude and tion of religion and learning, probity, and requiring long and patient research.

It is a veritable encyclopedia of Roman and Bavaria (cf.C. E., II-^3c)., formerly a kingdom, ecclesiastical knowledge, a mine of instructive and now a republican State imder the new German practical information made possible by Mgr. Bat- government, has an area of 30,562 square miles and tandier's undisputed competence in ecclesiastical a population of 7,150,146 (1919). This includes the affairs, intellectual power and great capacity for Bavarian Palatinate (2,372 sq. miles) with a popu- work. With all the resources of Rome at his dis- lation of 937,085; also the territory of the FVee posal he contributed to it original articles on little State of Coburg, which voted to unite with Bavaria known points which contain information obtainable on 30 l^ovember, 1919. On 11 March, 1920, the nowhere else. His aim in its foundation was to Bavarian Diet adopted the Bill for imion by unani- initiate the faithful into the life of the Church, mous consent, thus adding to its area r total of to make it known in its entirety and its details, and 216 square miles and a population of about 75,000. to establish a bond between all Catholics and the The largest cities with tneir respective populations Holy See. It is imiversally praised and was blessed are: Munich, 630,724; Nuremberg, 352,679; Augs- by all the Sovereign Pontiffs every year from its burg, 154,567; WUrzburg, 86,581. The latest avail- first appearance in 1898 to the present issue. able statistics are those of 1 December, 1910, when

In 1906 Mgr. Battandier was made consultor of there were in Bavaria 4,862,233 Catholics (76% of

the Congregation for Latin and Oriental Rites, and the population); 1,942,385 (21%) largely of the

after the reform of the Roman Curia was consultor Lutheran and Calvinist confessions, and 55,065 Jews,

of the Congregation of Religious, which replaces living chiefly in Munich, Nuremberg, and Fiirth.

that of Bishops and Regulars. After his mother's Besides the above there were included 5^16 Old

death, in 1907, he returned to France, where he built Catholics, 3,017 Mennonites, 164 Anglicans, 1,611

himself a home near his birthplace. The Bishop of Greek Catholics and Russian Orthodox, 1,139 Irv-

Viviera made him canon of nis cathedral, ana he ingites, 1,183 Methodists, 5,841 Free Christians, 1,649

continued hia many activities until his death, other Christians. Bavaria maintains diplomatic re-

amongst them the revision of his "(jluide canonique lations with the Holy See, an apostolic nuncio being

dea instituts religieux" to accord with the new stationed at Mimich and an envoy and minister

code of canon law. plenipotentiary at Rome. For further Catholic

statistics see Munich, Archdiocese of; Bamberg,

Bannard, Louis Pierre Andre, ecclesiastical Archdiocese of.

writer, b. in Bellegarde, Diocese of Orleans, France, Economic Conditions.— Bavaria is essentially an

24 August, 1828; d. in Gruson 9 November, 1919. agricultural State, and at least 3,000,000 of the in-

Of humble origin he was brought up in the fear habitants are engaged in agricultural pursuits.

and love of God, and in his poems has left many Catering to the tourist trade was the most im-

beautiful tributes to the moral worth and self- portant source of revenue to the people before

sacrifice of his parents. He was one of &ve chil- the war, and the lack of tourists, together with the

dren, was educated in Orleans, and ordained priest depression of the beer industry, nas made the

5 June, 1852. He taught in the preparatory semi- economic situation rather serious. Of the total

nary and in the Christian Doctnne classes estab- land area in Bavaria nearly one-half is under cul-

liahed by Mgr. Dupanloup throughout his diocese tivation, one-sixth under grass, and one-third under

until 1860, when he studied for his doctorate in forests. In 1919 the state forests netted the gov-

letters. The following year he won that in theoloey emment half a billion marks. The chief crops in

and was made vicar at the cathedral. Successively 1919 were wheat, 659,982 acres, yield 266,822 metric

chaplain of the Ecole normale and professor in tons; rye, 1,135,622 acres, 441,1^ metric tons; oats,

the Catholic University in Lille, he became superior 1,076,0^ acres, 581,142 tons; potatoes, 690,347 acres,

of St. Joseph's College in 1881, returning to the 1,619,141 tons. The vines, covering an acreage of

university as rector seven years later. In 1908 he 43,782 acres in 1919, yielded 10,014,290 gallons of

resigned and retired to his house at Gruson, where wine; 18,405 acres under hops yielded 450 metric

he spent the remainder of his long life in literary tons. These figures are slightly below the 1913

pursuits, and the society of his chosen friends, figures, but there is an increase in production in

retaining his influence in the educational world recent years. In 1913 the output of coal was 1,895,-

until the end. 715 tons; iron ore, 450,074 tons; pig iron, 195,60(3

Mgr. Baunard was made a prelate of the Holy tons; sulphuric acid, 163,343 tons; in 1918 the out- See in 1884 and prothonotaiy Apostolic in 1908. put of coal was 2,438,391 tons; iron ore, 436,961 His writings, mirror of his supernatural outlook, tons; pig iron, 172,906 tons; sulphuric acid, 126,927 clear principles and just and sympathetic apprecia- tons. The railway lines cover about 5,900 miles. tion of the spiritual and intellectual needs of his Education. — Education is compulsory between six day are many, valuable, and varied, including and sixteen. The latest census gives 7,534 ele- "Vingt aimees de rectorat," "Un si^le de FEglise mentary schools (public and private) with 19,564 de France (1800-1900)," "Le Doute et ses victimes," teachers, and 1,091,884 pupils. The year's expendi- "La Foi et sec victoires," "Le college chr6tien," ture on public schools was given as $3,167,653. "ravangile du pauvre," "Le Livre de la premiere The schools cost about $15,000,000. Communion et da la perseverance," "Autour de Government and Recent History. — On 12 De- ITiistoire," "Reliquea d'histoire," "Le Vieillard," cember, 1912, Luitpold, regent for the insane Otto, "Saints et Saintes de Dieu," "L'Apotre St. Jean," was succeeded by his son, Ludwig, who, yielding "St. Ambroise," "La Bse Madeleine-Sophie Barat," to popular demand, was proclaimed king as Ludwig "La Ven. Louise de Marillac," "Ernest Lelievre et HI, on 5 November, 1913. In 191«, after forty les fondations^ des Petites-Sceurs des Pauvres," "Le years of confinement, the insane Otto died. The Cardinal Pie, eveque de Poitiers." "Mme. Duchesne," royal family of Bavaria took a prominent part in "Le general de Sonis," "Frederic Ozanam," "Le the Great World War. The Crown Prince Rup- Cardinal Lavi^erie," "Les deux Freres: Philibert precht was in full command of the German forcos Vrau et Camille Feron-Vrau," and a volume of on the Somme; Prince Leopole participated in tho poems, "Pretre " He was an able leader in the Polish campaign, and was among the first to march