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clusively of members of the Order of St. Benedict, the Same year, addressed to the belligerents and

The college poesesses a library of 7,000 volumes, a their leaders, and, on 1 August, 1917, the offer made

well equipped laboratory, and a gymnasium, erected bv him to act as mediator for a general peace. In

in 1907. all of these documents, however, it must be noted he

Connected with the college is an academy which cited no one to his tribunal. To have done so would

embraces the usual high school course and a com- not only not have been conducive to peace, but

mercial school. A seminary in which members of would have aroused jealousy on all sides and would

the Order of St. Benedict and students for the also have exposed the Church itself to the most

Vicariate of North Carolina receive their training, serious perturbations. Nevertheless, he regarded

is also connected with the college and nmnbers himself as obligated to (Condemn all violations of

twenty students. international justice and morality, no matter b^

In recent years ten scholarships have been founded whom they were committed, meantime lavishing his

in Belmont Abbey College, for the education of bounties on all the victims of the war, by securing

young men for the priesthood. The Rt. Rev. through diplomatic channels the . exchange ol

Leo Haid, O. S. B., D. £)., is president of the col- wounded soldiers, the liberation of civilian prisoners,

lege, where in 1920-21 100 students were registered, the hospitalization of the wounded, the repatria-

(For Abbey Nullius, see Nobth Carolina.) tion of prisoners whose families needed their help, etc.

n^f'^m'S'trte^t^ro^f lTaliin-S?mafi^ SiT^tr^of^'AJtitS^^^^

2^^ E^S Ind ^^^^^^^ ^°-^--- -^rj. -d ?J^^S?I^ i- *-«e lines fho

^ced TSrians. Rev. Gugliehno di San Felice, orgamzation established m 1919 and known as the

Becond prefect apostolic of this territory, named ff5«!i^ ^LS^Hufl^lr^^^ .^rtSfr^*

toward the end of 1906, was forced to retire the f .^^ proportional disarmament, obligatory arbitra-

J^«ii*^;.,w ,,«rriL««,,or^V ,11 \^^^u\^ Tiio «i/»/.<Marir tio^f frcedom of the seas, reciprocal cancellation of

f So^iS^n^f nrS^P?f ?n^^ ^«,^dr^P ^he general indebtedness total evacuation of Bel-

R^nffTpnf ^nht l^^^ouX ^fv^™ 19M gium and France, and other countries and colonies,

in this territory, 6 BrothL, 4 resi^nt parishes, one ^^Si^^3nf hlfrn^^^^^

of which was vacant, 1 hosi^ital at GeUt and several l^^^^^^ .^^ °^ ^"™?,^ ^3^^^- ,,^" ^^^ ^^ ^^^^

^♦u™ -^.r^I^wtr K«^*oKi;oi,Li before it became evident that the victory was to

others are about to be established. y^^ ^j^j^ ^^^ ^j.^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ proposition of such a

Benedict XV (Gu(X)mo della Chissa), Pope, b. kind and at such a moment should dispel forever

21 November, 1854; d. 21 January, 1922. He was the calumny that the document was inspired by the second son of Giuseppe Marchese della Chiesa, Germany. Unfortunately, this appeal of the pope of Genoese nobility, and Giovanna Migliorati of was not treated with even the common courtesy Venice. Belonging to his family on his mother's of an acknowledgment by the Entente, their pur- side was Innocent VII, Roman pontiff 1404-1406. pose being to pointedly ignore him and to exclude After preparatory studies he entered the university all Sovereign rontiffs from any share in European in his native city, receiving there his doctorate in diplomacy. In his Encyclical of 1917, 'Tacem," both civil and canon law in 1873. His father de- the pope almost replies to their silence and reminds sired that he should become a lawyer, but Giacomo the diplomats that in a league founded on the basis wished to dedicate himself to the priesthood, of Christianity there can be no better instrument Accordingly he went to the Collegio Capranica in employed than the Church, not only for the eternal Home for his ecclesiastical studies, and completed interest of man, but for his material prosperity, them at the Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. He As a matter of fact, the pope is now the center was ordained priest 21 December, 1878. Appointed of the diplomatic world, for whereas the nations secretary to Mgr. RampoUa in the Sacred Con- had very few representatives accredited to the gregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, he Holy See, prior to the war, now that it is over, followed him to Madrid when Rampolla was apo&- almost all the nations of the world are represented tolic nuncio there, and returned when his distin-^ there. Italy has welcomed in Monte Citorio the euished chief was made cardinal and Secretary of admission of a hundred Cathohc legislators to check State by Leo XIII in 1887. He remained at that the danger of the rising tide of Socialism. The post after the death of Leo XIII, and for the first ceremonial code has been modified to facilitate the four years of the pontificate of Pius X. During reception of European kings and princes at tho that time he had advanced through successive Vatican. France, in particular, has been mollified grades until he reached that of Substitute. When by the canonization of Joan of Arc and Margaret Cardinal Swampa died, in 1907, Mgr. della Chiesa Mary, and by the assurance as far as possible of was chosen as his successor in the See of Bologna, the pope's interest in the Orient. Russia's crash and was consecrated by Pius X himself in the Sis- possibly opens the way to a union of Eastern and tine Chapel. On 25 May, 1914, he was made cardi- Western Christianity, and perhaps the elevation of nal and on 3 September of that year was elected St. Ephrem, the Syrian, to the rank of Doctor of to succeed Pius X. He took the name of Benedict the Universal Church is a move in the same direc- XV. tion. Ireland has rejoiced in the canonization of

His pontificate lasted for seven years, four Oliver Plunket, the Archbishop of Armagh, and

months, and nineteen days; all of them synchronous his associate heroes.

with the years of the most tragic crisis in the During his pontificate the New Code of Canon

world's history, the World War. His first encyclical. Law was draughted. Modernism was again con-

"Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum Principis," was issued demned and the new term of Integralism was for-

at the banning of the titanic struggle; his second, bidden, while on the other hand the traditional

"Paoem Dei Munus Pulcherrimum, coincided with position against minimizing was maintained in

the meeting of the plenipotentiaries in their en- Biblical controversies and in the teaching of the

deavor to reconstruct the map of Europe and give philosophy and theology of St. Thomas. Benedict

peace to the world. Between these two major utter- XV in the few brief years of his pontificate estab-

anoes of the pope, there are three others, those of lished in out-of-the-way places in the world 9. pre-

22 January, 1915, the great Appeal of 28 July of fectures apostolic, 28 vicariates apostolic, 25 new