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bishoprics, 8 archbishoprics, and 2 apostolic delega- abbeys: Downside, Ampleforth, Woolhampton,

tions. In charitable works, individual or associate. Fort Augustus, and Belmont. In 1920 the first

the spirit of his predecessors, Pius X and Leo XIII, foundation of the English Congregation in America

was continually msisted upon, namely, the necessity was made at Portsmouth, R. I., under Dom Leonard

of basing them on the supernatural, an element Saigent. The status of this foundation is still

that is lacking in most of the humanitarian schemes undefined. At Gorey (Ireland) is a school (Mt.

of the day. His own charities were so lavish and St. Benedict's) established by Rev. Francis Sweet-

so regardless of race, color, or creed, that a most man, a monk of Downside. In 1016 the episcopal

marvelous recognition of it was publicly made in see of Newport, of which Belmont was the pro-

a quarter where it could never have been expected, cathedral, was translated to Cardiff, with a metro-

In Constantinople, the heart of Mohammedanism, politan cathedral chapter erected in 1920. Belmont,

a ma^ficent Dronze statue of the pope in full having renounced its privileges as cathedral priory,

canomcals was erected even before his death, the was erected into an abbey by papal decree of 1920.

expense of which was borne exclusively bv Turks. In recognition of this renunciation and past services

scnismatics, and Jews. When Benedict aV breathed of the order, the decree provides that so as far

his last, immediately from all quarters of the globe as circumstances permit there shall always be a

came diplomatic messages of condolence, not only Benedictine amon^ the bishops of England." The

the great nations of Europe, but Luxemburg, Bui- Anglican Benedictmes of Caldey came under Catho-

Saria, Monaco, Finland, IDenmark, Norway, An- lie obedience in 1913, but whereas they observe the

orra, Japan, Nicaragua, Czechoslovakia, and Benedictine Rule they have not yet joined the

others. Most affectionate of all was the one from Benedictine Congregation. The abbot president of

Dail Eireann: Kindly receive the expression of the English Congregation is Dom Oswald Smith,

the profound grief of the Irish people on the death Abbot of Ampleforth since 1900, appointed abbot

of the great Pontiff who has shown to us such devo- president in April, 1921.

tion and paternal affection." The message from (3) The Hungarian Congregation, affiliated to Egypt BayBi "In the name of the Mussulmans of the Cassinese, comprises the four abbeys of Bakony- Ejp^t the Committee at Paris presents to the whole bel, Tihany, Domolk, and Zalaviir, and the six resi- of Christendom its sincerest condolence for the dences of Komaron, Koszeg, Gyor, P&pa, Sopron* distresBing loss of His Holiness Pope Benedict XV, and Esztergom, which are dependent on the Arch- who was the apostolic soul of the world's peace, abbey Nullius of Monte Pannonia (Martinsberg). His statue erected at Constantinople, the capital of The abbot president and arch-abbot of Monte Pan- Islam affords us the consolation of having always, nonia is Dom Remigius Bardos, appointed in 1920. before our eyes his loving soul, the memory of (4) The Swiss Congregation established in 1602, his efforts for the peace of the world, his profound under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception, respect for justice and man's right to liberty." All comprises five abbejrs: Einsiedeln, Gries, Disentis, of this will form an everlasting page in the history Engelberg, and Bregenz. The abbot president is of the world. Dom Thomas Bossart, Abbot of Einsiedeln since


Benedictine Order (cf. C. E., II-443a), an order (5) The Bavarian Congregation erected in 1684,

which comprises fifteen congregations of monks under the patronage of the Holy Angels, numbers

living under the rule of St. Benedict, each with an ten abbe3rs and two priories. The abbeys with date

abbot president and all under an abbot primate, of abbatial title are: Metten (1840), Augsburg

The International Benedictine College of St. Anselm (1834), Ottobeuren (1834). Scheyem (1842), Welten-

in Rome is immediately subject to the Holy See burg (1913), St. Boniface (1835) at Munich,

and is the residence of the abbot primate, who, Schaftlam (1866), Ettal (1900), Plankstetten (1917),

however, during the World War (1915-19), retired Niederalteich (1918). The priories are Andechs,

to Einsiedeln, and St. Anselm became a military dependent on the Abbey of Munich, and the Priory

hospital under American auspices. The college was of Sts. Corbinian and Theodore at Munich, founded

reopened in 1919 and is now crowded to capacity in 1903, canonically erected in 1904 and dependent with 81 students, 24 professors, and 15 lay brothers.' on the Abbey of Scheyem. The Abbey of Nieder-

The present abbot primate is Dom Fidelis de alteich, founded in 731, ceased to exist in 1803, and

Stotzingen of the Beuronese Congregation, bom was restored in 1918. The Abbey of Ottobeuren,

1871, ordained 1897, Abbot of Mari^ Laach in 1901, formerly united to the Abbey of Augsburg, in 1918

coadjutor in 1913 of Abbot Primate Hildebrand was re-established as a monastery sm jttria. The

de Hemptinne, whom he succeeded at the iatter's abbot president of the Bavarian Congregation is

death in 1913. He is also procurator of the Greek Dom Placid Glo^^er, Abbot of Augsburg since 1915.

Pontifical College of St. Athanasius. Pope Bene- (6) The Brazihan Congregation, founded in 1581,

diet XV was Ptotector of the whole Benedictine ceased to exist in 1889, and was restored by monks

Chnder. of the Beuronese Congregation in 1895. It consists

(1) The Cassinese Congregation, formerly that of six abbeys and the Priorv of Trinidad, founded 'of St. Justina of Padua, erected by Gregory All in 1912 and canonically erected in 1915. The abbe3r8,

1408, consists of fourteen abbeys: Monte Cassino, with date of restoration, are: Rio de Janeiro (1903),

^ St. Paul-without-the-Walls, Trinity di Cava, Bahia (1889T; Olinda (1895), Parahyba (1903), Sao

â– Modena, Florence, Perugia, Sienna, Assisi, Cesena, Paulo (1900), Quixad^ (founded 1900). United to

Catania, Palermo, Monreale, Farfa, and Pontida. the Abbey Nullius of Our Lady of Montserntt at

The first three are abbeys nullius. The abbot Rio de Janeiro is the territory of Rio Branco, an-

president is Dom Gregory Diamare, elected in 1909, nexed in 1909. The arch-abbot and president . of

re-elected in 1915. New Constitutions for the con- the congregation is Joseph Faria, elected in 1920.

Oation were approved in 1915. St. Justina of The Abbey of Parahyba was united to the Abbey

ua, which was despoiled and its monks dis- of Olinda in 1906.

persed in 1787, was restored and erected into an (7) The Gallican Congregation, established in

abbey in 1919 imder the Cassinese Congregation 1837, since the expulsion of its religious from

of Primitive Observance. France has houses in England, Spain, Italy, Belgium,

(2) The English Congregation, restored in 1607 Holland, Mexico, Argentina, and Canada. It num- after its suppression by Henry VIII, numbers five bers nine abbeys, the Conventual Priory of Our