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I^y of Victory at Paris, founded in 1893 and made up of five provinces. The superior general is

canonically erected in 1900, and five cells. The Dom Benedict Gariador, elected in 1920. He is

abbeys, with their present place of residence, are: assisted by Dom Claudius Bamaba (Italian and

Solesnaes (Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight, England), English provinces), Dom Vincent Coosemans (Bel-

liguge (Chevctogne, Belgium), Marseilles (Chiari, gian province), Dom Fulbert Glories (French

Italy), Silos, Fontanelle (Conques m Ardennes, Bel- province), Dom Isidore Fernandez (Spanish

fium), Famborough, St. Maurice of Clairvaux in province). The pro-procurator general is Dom

iUDcexnburg (erected in 1909, succeeding to the Gerard Fomarole, who resides at St. Ambrose,

rights and privileges of the Abbey of St.Maurus (a) The Italian province comprises the proto-

at Glanefuil), Wisque (Oosterhout, Holland), Ker- coenoby of St. Scholastica and the hermitage of the

gonan (Ciney-Linciaux, Belgium). The cells are: Holy Grotto at Subiaco, which is an abbey nullius,

Cogullada in Saragoasa, Spain, dependent on the the Abbeys of Genoa, Final pia, Parma, Praglia, on

Abbey of Ligu^e ; San Rafael in Mexico, Madrid, which depend the house at Daila and the monastery

and Buenos Aires, dependent on the Abbey of at Venice, the Abbey Nullius of Monte Vergine,

Silos; and St. Benedict of the Lake in Sherbrooke, the monastery of St. Onofrio (Sicciole, Istria), the

Canada, dependent on the Abbey of Fontanelle. house ef St. Ambrose at Rome, and the Abbey

In 1921 Dom Paul Delatte resigned as Abbot of of St. Justina of Padua, restored in 1919 and ad-

Quarr Abbey and Superior General of the Gallican ministered by Praglia. The abbot visitor is Dom

Con^egation, and was succeeded by Dom Germain Isidore Sain, Abbot of Praglia.

Gozien, hitherto prior of Quarr Aobey. (b) The English province comprises the Abbey

(8) The American-Cassinese Congregation, of St. Augustine at Ramsgate, with Dom Thomas erected by Pius IX in 1855, under the title of the Bergh as abbot visitor.

Holy Guardian Angels, comprises eleven abbeys : (c) The Belgian province comprises the Abbeys

St. Vincent's (Beatty, Penn.), St. John (College- of Affligem, Termonde, Steenbrugge, and Merkel-

ville, Minn.), St. Benedict's (Atchison, Kan.), St. beek, the house of Siegburg dependent on Merkel-

Mary's (Newark, N. J.), Maryhelp (Belmont, N. beek, Priory of Comelemiinster, and Prefecture

C), St. Bernard's (Cullman Co., Ala.), St. Pro- Apostolic of Northern Transvaal. The Abbot Gen-

oopius's (Lisle, 111.), St. Leo's (Pasco Co., Fla.), eral Dom Benedict Gariador is visitor of this

St. Bede's (Peru, 111.), St. Peter's (Muenster, Sask.), province.

St. Martin's (Lacey, Wash.). St. Peter's was es- (d) The French province comprises the Abbeys

tablished under the name of Cluny in Illinois in of Pierre-qui-Vire, Buckfast, Oklahoma, with a de-

1892, and in 1903 was translated to Canada and pendent priory in California, Belloc with some of

erected into an abbey in 1911 and abbey nullius in its community in Spain at Lazcano, Encalcat

1921. Maryhelp is an abbey nidlius erected in (Dourgne), and Kerbeneat, and the priories of Nino-

1910. St. Bede's was erected into an abbey in 1910 Dios (Argentina), and Jerusalem. The abbot visitor

and St. Martin's in 1914. The abbot president is is Dom Maurus Etcheverry.

Dom Ernest Helmstetter, Abbot of Newark since (e) The Spanish province comprises the Abbeys

1910. Abbot visitors are Dom Bernard Menges, of Montserrat, Vilvaneira, and Samos, the Abbey

Abbot of St. Bernard's, and Dom Vincent Huber, Nullius of New Norcia, the Priories of Podio

Abbot of St. Bede's. (Pueyo), St. Clodio, Manila (Philippines), De

(9) The Congregation of Beuron established by Miraculo (Solsona), the house of Los Cabos de- Pius IX in 1868, comprises seven abbeys and three pendent on Samos, the monastery of Lorenzana, priories. The abbeys are: Beuron, Prague, Seckau, and the monastery of Puente-Alto (Chilo) founded Maria-Laach, Gerleve, Cucujaes, and Neresheim. from Samos in 1915 and dependent on it. The abbot The priories are: Mount Sion, Jerusalem (founded visitor is Dom Joseph Alvarez, Abbot of Samos. 1906) ; Kempen (founded 1908), dependent on (12) The Austrian Congregation of the Immacu- Beuron; and Gruessau, dependent on Prague. The late Conception, erected in 1889, numbers ten ab- Abbey of Sts. Ulrich and Afra at Neresheim was beys: Kremsmiinster, Brevnau-Braunau including restored in 1920. At the death of Dom Maurus the arch-coenoby of Brevnau and the monastery of (1900), Dom Placid (d. 1908) succeeded him as Braunau, Saint Lambert in Styria, Gottweig, Ad- Arch-abbot of Beuron. His successor, Dom Ilde- mont, Melk, St. Paul in Carinthia, Seitenstetten, fonse Schober, resigned in 1918, and Dom Raphael Altenburg, and Vienna. The abbot president is Walzer was elected arch-abbot. The Holy See has Dom Adalbert Dungel, Abbot of Gottweig, elected delegated Dom Raphael Molitor, Abbot of Ger- in 1889.

leve, to govern the Beuronese Congregation. In (13) The Austrian Congregation of St. Joseph,

1920 Maredsous and Louvain were separated from erected in 1889, comprises the Priorv of Innsbruck

Beuron and with St. Andr6 formed into the Belgian and six abbeys : Salzburg, Michaelbeuem, Fiecht,

congregation. In 1922 the community of Erding- Lambach, Rajhrad, and Marienberg. The abbot

ton Abbey (q.v.) was disbanded. president is Dom Willibald Hauthaler, Abbot of

(10) The Swiss- American Congregation, founded Salzburg, elected in 1901. The abbot visitors are in 1870, numbers six abbeys and the Priory of Dom Leo Treuinfels, Abbot of Marienberg, and St. Michael at Cottonwood, Idaho (1908), de- Dom Coelestin Baumgartner, Abbot of Lambach. pendent on Conception Abbey. The abbeys, with (14) The Congregation of St. Ottilien, estab- date of erection, are: St. Meinrad's, St. Meinrad, lished in 1904, has the special work of foreign mis- Ind. (1870), Conception Abbey, Conception, Mo. sions. It comprises: the Arch-abbey of St. Ottilien (1881), New Subiaco, Spielerville, Ark. (1891), St. (erected 1902; arch-abbey, 1914); the Abbeys of Joseph's, Covington, La. (1903), St. Mary's, Rich- Schweiklberg (1914), Miiensterschwarzach (1914), ardton, N. D. (1903), St. Benedict's, Mount Angel, and Seoul (1913); the Priory of St. Ludwig at Ore. (1904). The abbot president, Dom Frowin Wipfeld, Bavaria, dependent on Muensterschwar- Conrad, Abbot of Conception Abbey since 1881, has zacn; the houses at Dillingen, Munich, and Passau; two assistants: Dom Athanasius Schmitt, Abbot the Vicariate Apostolic of Dar-es-Salaam ; and the of St. Meinrad, and Dom Ignatius Conrad, Abbot Prefecture Apostolic of Lindi. The superior gen- of New Subiaco. eral is Dom Norbert Weber, Arch-abbot of St.

(11) The Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Ottilien, elected in 1902.

Observance, founded in 1851 and erected in 1872, is (15) The Belgian Congregation was erected by