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of York, did so in 1606. Shortly afterwards he went are Protestants, 224,200 Jews, and 50,000 belong to to live in Rome to study for the priesthood, and other creeds.

was ordained there in June, 1004, by Archbishop Statistics. — Ecclesiastically Berlin belongs to the Seton, titular of Heliopolis. Delegation of the Mark of Brandenburg, which is

Father Benson's distinguished origin was swiftly under a delegate of the Prince-Bishop of Breslau; forgotten in his own originality and achievements, the delegate is the Provost of St. Hedwig's in Ber- Stationed for several years after his ordination at lin. The city of Great Berlin is divided for the Cambridge, where he became a power amongst the cure of souls into 42 districts, composed of 32 undergraduates, in 1908 he obtained permission from parishes and 10 vicariates or curateships, of which the archbishop to retire from pastoral work in order 21 belong to the Archipresb3rterate of Berlin to devote his time to preaching and writing. From (Middle Great Berlin), 12 to the Archipresbyterate that time until his death six years later, his life of Charlottenburg (Great Berlin West), and 9 to was one of unceasing activity in which all his rare the Archipresbyterate of Menkolki (Great Berlin gifts of soul and mmd were lavishly spent in the East). Whilst in 1907 Berlin had only 30 Catholic service of the Church. His success in the pulpits churches and private chapels where public church of Rome and the United States, as well as in those services were held, the number of churches has of his own country, was tremendous. His spiritual now (1921) increased to 62 churches and 25 private insist, his utter sincerity, his burning zeal and his chapels (mostly in religious houses) . fascmating eloquence drew crowds to his sermons To the principal churches the following have and made many converts. He preached Lenten been added: Church of the Holy Rosary in Stegliz, sermons in Rome in 1909, 1911, and 1913, and the a southwest suburb (1900); Corpus Christi Church alternate years in the United States. (1904); St. Boniface (1907); St. Peter (1908); St.

He was not less successful with his writings, which Joseph (1909). The parishes are for the most part he produced with amazing fecundity, and which in- large ones, with large numbers of parishioners, for elude novels, historical and sentimental, devotional example : St. Hedwig (28,000) ; Corpus Christi books, controversial works, poetry, and plays. They (13,000); Holy Family (10,000); Sacred Heart (20,- were all written with an avowed purpose, are marked 500) ; St. Joseph (18,000) ; St. Matthew (22,000) ; by charm of style, subtle psychology, originality, St. Michel (22,000); St. Pane (20,000); St. Pius and appealing mysticism, many of his novels being (24,000); St. Sebastian (18,000); Sacred Heart, the history of a soul's complete surrender to God. Charlottenburg (31,000) ; Holy Rosary, Steglitz Amongst them are the "Light Invisible" (1903), (13,000); St. Louis, Wilmersdorf (32,000) ; St. Clara, written while still an Anglican; By What Author- MenhoUn (26,000) > St. Mauritius, Lichtenberg ity (1904), "Come Rack, Come Rope" (1912), "The (21,000), etc.

iUn^'s Achievement," "Lord of the World," "The In 1921 the Catholic clergy consisted of 37 clergy Sentimentalists," "The Conventionalists," "The Nee- of higher rank (the provost, 36 parish priests), ^ romancers," "A Winnowing," "Non-Catholic Denom- assistants, 25 priests in other positions, 30 living in inations," 'The Dawn of All," "Christ in the communities, a total of 175 priests. Church," "The Coward," "The Confessions of a Schools. — ^There is no public Catholic higher Convert" (1913), "An Average Man" (1913), "Para- school for boys in Berlin, but there is a private doxes of Catholicism," "The Friendship of Christ," higher school for boys with about 130 pupils. There "Initiation" (1914), and the posthumous "Loneli- are 7 higher Catholic schools for girls, two of which nesB?" train teachers. All these schools, with the excep-

Mgr. Benson was buried in the garden of his tion of two, are conducted by nuns. There are home, Hare Street House, Buntingford, which he about 40 Catholic schools for primary instruction bequeathed to the Archbishop of Westminster; it {Gemeindeachulen) .

is used as a rest house for the clergy. Orders, Congrbqations^ and Charitable Inbtitu*

TiONS. — ^The male orders in Berlin are: Dominicans

Bergamo, Diocesb of (Beroomensis; cf. C. E., (2 houses with 12 priests and 7 brothers) ; Jesuits n-489c), in Lombardy, Northern Italy, suffragan (2 houses with 11 priests and 1 brother); Salva- of Milan. Bishop Radini-Tadeschi, appointed to torians (1 house with 5 priests); Franciscans (1 this see 13 January, 1905, d. 22 August, 1914, and house with 2 priests) ; Poor Brothers of St. Francis was succeeded by the preset incumbent, Rt. Rev. (1 house with 16 brothers who conduct an orphan Luigi Marelli, b. in Miland, 1858, appointed Bishop a^lum for boys) ; Brothers of St. Alexis (1 house of Bobbio, 16 December, 1907, and transferred 15 with 14 brothers who conduct a sanatorium for the December, 1914. In 1920, 8-12 August, the sixth mentally deranged).

national eucharistic congress of Italy was held in There are in Great Berlin (1921) 15 female orders this diocese, presided over by Bishop Bartolomasi and congregations, viz.: the Sisters of St. Charles of Trieste. Bergamo to-day (1922) is particularly Borromeo, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the noted fo( its Catholic social works; it comprises Grey Sisters of St. Elizabeth, the Sisters of St. a Catholic population of 500,000, 371 parishes, 1,163 Joseph, the Carmelites of the Sacred Heart, the secular and 59 regular clergy, 400 seminarians, 478 Sisters of St. Catherine, the Servants of Mary, the religious, 84 Brothers, and 512 churches or chapels. Sisters of the Divine Saviour, the Sisters of Our

Lady, the Nuns of the Good Shepherd, the Sisters

Berlin (cf. C. E., II-493b), capital of the German of St. Vincent, and the Ursulines, in all 63 houses. Republic and of the Free State of Prussia. It is of whom the Sisters of St. Charles, the Grey Sisters situated in the heart of the Mark of Brandenburg, of St. Elizabeth, the Sisters of St. Vincent, the Sis- on both sides of the Spree above its entrance into ters of Mary, the Dominicans and Franciscans have the Havel. The city covers an area of 24% sq. charge of hospitals and institutions of ^'isiting nurses miles and had (8 October, 1919) 1,902,500 inhabi- for Uie poor and sick, kindergartens and day nur- tants, not including the population of the suburbs, series; tne Nims of the Good Shepherd, the Sisters which numbered 1,901,500 inhabitants. Since 1 of St. Joseph, and the Grey Sisters conduct rescues October, 1920, the city of Berlin and the suburbs and a^lums for girls, the Carmelites, orphanages form one city under the name of "Great Berlin," and kindergartens, while the Franciscans, the Sis- wiih 3,804,000 inhabitants. Of the inhabitants of ters of Our Lady, and the Ursulines are occupied Great Berlin 462,229 are Catholics, about 3,067,000 in school work and conduct boarding houses and