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not to interfere with the internal administration of 1920, as given in the report for 1921, were 3325,401,

the Bhutanese state. and during the 105 years of its work, it has distrib-

At the head of the Government there are noxni- uted 141,^,340 volumes.

Dally two supreme authorities, the Dharma Raja, During the war the Society circulated Scriptures

known as Shapting Renipoehe, the spiritual head, among all the belligerent forces in the cantonments,

and the Deb or Depa Raja, the temporal ruler. The in prison camps, in hospitals, in the trenches— wher-

Dharma Raja is regarded as a very high incama- ever there was a soldier or a worker that was in

tion of Buddha, far higher than the ordinary incar« need. Its distribution to American soldiers going

jiations in Tibet, of which there are several hundreds, over to Europe and to those of other nationalities

On the death of a Dharma a year or two is allowed in Europe reached a total of 6,818,301 volumes. Of

to elapse and his reincarnation then takes place, these, 1,887,758 volumes were distributed in Europe

always in the Choje, or royal family of Bhutan, to the Dellieerent forces of other countries. It may

In 1007 the Deb Raja resigned his position and the be recorded here that the war distribution of the

Tongsa Penlop, Sir Ugyen Wangchuk, was elected British and Foreign Bible Society and of other

as the first hereditary Maharaja of Bhutan. ^ European Bible Societies, and the American Bible

The chief fortresses or castles are: Punakha, the Society, and including the Scriptures prepared by

winter capital, a place of great natural strength; Catholic and Jewish sources, reached an astonish-

Tasichozong, the summer capital. Faro, Angdupho- ing total of 20,000,000 on all the battlefields of

rang, Tongsa, Taka, Biagha. Though the people Europe.

are nominally Buddhists, their religious exercises ^P^'™»». ^^J.^^^i^^i**^ pf the American Bible Society

^^,«««f AKiofl^r tn tKa T^innitiafinn of Pvil SDirits S^®f York.lQlfl); The American Bible Society: One Hun- COnsi^ Chiefly m the propitiation OI evu spiriw ^^^ ^^ ^-^^^ Annual Report (New York. IWl).

and the recitation of sentences from the Tibetan •,.^. ,„ ^ . ., , ,

scriptures. Tasichozong, the chief monastery in ^^^* vBtoa Colonia), a city and colony of

Bhutan, contains 300 priests. The military force Caesarea Mauntamae, mentioned by Ptolemy. It

consists of local levies under the control of the wfs the seat of a bishopric and is now a Latin

different chiefs. They are of little military value, ^tular see, the title held by Rt. Rev. Francis

The chief productions are rice, Indian com, millet, Rudolph Bomewasser, auxihaiy to the Archbiahop

lac, wax, different kinds of cloth, ponies, chownes, of Cologne.

and silk. Muzzle-loading guns and swords of high Biella, Diocese op (Bugbllbnsis; of. C. E.,

tempered steel are manufactured. II-559d), in the province of Novara, Iti&ly, suffragan

of Vercelh. Bishop Serafino, appointed to this see

Bible Societies (cf. C. E., II-544b).— In its an- 2 December, 1912, was transferred 22 March, 1917,

nual statement for the year 1921 the British and and succeeded by the present incumbent, Rt. Rev.

Foreign Bible Society reports 5128 auxiliaries, Giovanni Garighano, b. in Porino, 1872, appointed

branches and associations in England and Wales, titular Bishop of Eucarpia, 9 September, 1911, and

with 4750 auxiliaries and branches outside of the transferred 22 March, 1917. Upon his transfer from

British Isles, mainly in the British dominions and this see, Bishop Serafind left 10,000 lire to be

colonies, making a total of 9878. It has made used for a new church at Oropa. A decree of 12

538 translations of the Scriptures, 160 of these June, 1918, accorded to the cathedral chancery of

being the work of twentieth-century scholars. In Oropa, the privilege of joining to the cathedral

the year covered by the last report 8,655,781 books title, that of Our Lady of Oropa, a celebrated

were issued, bringing the total number since the sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin. The 1920 statis-

organization of the Society up to 319,470,000 vol- tics credit this diocese with 156,000 Catholics, 114

umes. The expenditures for the year were £18,919,- parishes, 265 secular and 29 regular clergy, 40

374 ($91,759,000). . seminarians, and 270 churches or chapels.

The National Bible Society of Scotland extends -n^^a-.-, /^* ri i? tt »>o \ tj- • -^ ^u

its operations far beyond the confines of that coun- f^^ }^^' P;J^'l n-563c) .—Bigamists, m the

try. In 1920 it was working also in Belgium, Czecho- ongmsl sense of the term, namely, mdividuals who

Slovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, ^^^ contracted two or more valid mamages suc-

Jugoslavia, Portugal. Africa, China, India, Japan, ^essively, are m canon law irregular ex defectu,

Korea, and the British Dominions. The funds ex- ^^<^^ means that they may not receive or exercise

pended by this organization in 1920 amounted to f^y ecclesiastical orders or dignities. The irregu-

£32,380 ($157000) lanty is incurred even if the mamage has only

The American Bible Society has changed ite pro- ^^, ?^^^V I^^n>retative bigamy, which was a

gram largely in relation to its work in this coun- feK^ ^^^^o^' has now disappeared from canon law.

try, and it now carries on its distribution in the Persons who, while they are bound by the bonds

United States through nine home agencies cover- «' matnmony, attempt to marry agam or even to

ing every part of the United States, and 150 auxil- contract a so-called civil marnage become tpso facto,

ianr societies. It has twelve foreign agencies, six ^^^^9"}? .p^ account of cnme; if they eontinue

covering Latin-America with headquarters at Porto ^^ir illicit umon despite the warning of the ordi-

Rico, Mexico City, Cristobal, for "^ the Caribbean °ay, they are. to be excommumcated or placed

and Upper Andes agencies, Rio de Janeiro, and If 4^^ personal interdict, according to the gravity of

Buenos Aires, two in the Near East with head- their offense. It shoiUd be noted that the crime

quarters at Constantinople and Cairo, and four ^^^c? « *^ere in question is an attempted second

m the Far East with headquarters at Manila, mamage, not concubinage or adulterous relations.

Bangkok, Shanghai, and Tokio. Binatlon (cf. C. E., n-n568c).— Three Masses may

The Society has no established agency in Europe, be said by all priests on Christmas Day and on the

but maintains correspondents in every European feast of All Souls. On other days a priest may

country into which the modem map of Europe is celebrate only once, except by Apostolic indult or

divided. In these countries it either co-operates by leave of the local ordinary, when, owing to a

with the National Bible Societies or lends assist- lack of priests, a notable number of the ftiithful

ance to local churches in their inner mission and could not otherwise hear Mass on a day of obliga-

other activities. All told, the copies of the Bible, tion ; the ordinary cannot, however, aUow any priest

or parts of the Bible, distributed by the American to celebrate more than two Masses on the same day.

Bible Society for the year ending 31 December, In certain missionaiy countries the Holy See has