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authorised ordinaries to permit their priests for a side Abbey. In 1889 he was ordained and for some just cause to accept a stipend for a second Mass years taught the school and did parochial work when they binate. Ordinarily, however, when a in the parish of St. Ogsberg, Coventxy. Later he Mass has been said to fulfil an obligation in justice acted as socius and secretary to the then Abbot e. g. in return for a stipend, or when the Mass was Gasquet. During the South African War he was offered for the parishioners, a priest is forbidden acting chaplain to the forces, and durine the World to receive a stipend for a second Mass, though he War performed the same service for the forces in may be paid something for a reason not intrinsically England, chiefly at the hospital at Netley. He was connected with the celebration of the Mass, for in- demobilized only a few weeks before lus death, stance, to recompense him for his traveling expenses. Dom Birt's best known literary work is his Eliza- Code, 806: irUh EccL Rec. (1920). XVI, 68. bethan Religious Settlement"; others of value are

Birmingham. Archdiocese op (BmMiNOHAMiA, '1?"^°^ ,?^«P°'^??^ School," "Lingard's History

Birminghamibnbib; cf. C. E, IW78c).-By the Abndged," "Benedictine P^^^

Apostolic Letter of 28 October^ 1911, reconstituting ^^^^ ^^^ "^t^^f Engish Benedictines," and many

the hierarchy of England and Wales, Birmingham reviews and article m leading periodicals. A mem-

was Taised to archiepiscopal rank, with the suffragan P^^ °^ V^^ Committee of the Catholic Truth Society,

sees of Chfton. Newport, Plymouth, Shrewbury, Mid t? ^^K * prominent part m it? work, not only by

Menevia in Wales. The dioceses of Newport and ??« controversial and histoncal pamphlets, but by

Menevia have since been constituted a separate hw personal attendance at meetings where his sound

province. In 1921 Archbishop Ilsley, who had sue- *?^f® ^^ greatly valued. He was also a member

ceeded Bishop Ullathome, retired, and was succeeded ®^ ^^^ Council of the Catholic Record Society,

by his auxiliary, Archbishop Mclntyre. Birth Control. See Population.

The general population of the diocese (census Blsarchlo, Diocbsb op. See Ozibbi.

of 1911) was 3,114,470, the estimated Cathohc popu- TMBi,n« /«f r« i? tt cqik\ u^/™

lation, 115,000. There are 166 public churches, 43 yJ^^^P^^^u ^' ^ ^I'^^^It:^^!! r>MVQ*o on/4 n^yyxr^T>4^ «Uo^«i= AT «««„««*» rru^ o^ made disHod uow nc must nave De<

a person can

26 convent schools, with an attendance in the n j i. xu ^ • j *. j

public elementary schools of 27,128, in the other persons called to the episcopate is now conducted

schools of 11,460. Among the iocikies organized ^^ ^^ Consistonal Conpegation. A bishop elect

amonff the laity of the diocese are the Catholic must receive canonical institution from the Holy

Cripples' Union, the Union of Catholic Mothers, the ^ ^V^ before bemg instituted he must make a

Cathohc Young Men's Society, and the Catholic profession of faith and swear fidelity to the pope

Women's League "^ presence of the Holy Father or of his delegate;

St. Mary's College, Oscott, the diocesan seminary, ^^^^ V^® Tridentine legislation he had to make

held the fifty-seventh annual meeting of the Os^ the profession of faith in the first provincial synod

cotian Society on 13 July, 1920. On 12 March of "®?^ ^^^^ ^^ election. On bemg promoted to the

this year the New Franciscan House of Studies episcopacy, a pnest even if he is a cardinal, must

known as Grosseteste House was opened at Oxford, receive consecration within three months after re-

the Salesian Fathers having taken over the house eeiving the Apostohc letters, unless he is legiU-

at Cowley. mately prevented, and he must go to his diocese

In recent years the diocese of Birmingham has within four months,

lost through death many of its prominent church- A bishop now takes canomcal possession of his

men, among them : the Rev. Henry Ignatius Ryder ?ee l)y showing his Apostolic letters to the cathe-

(d. 1907), and his brother. Rev. Charles Edward ^^ chapter in presence of the capitular secretary

Ryder (d. 1912), pastor of Smethwick and founder ?^ of the diocesan chancellor. In virtue of the

of its church; Rev. John J. Hopwood (1913). for ^^ ?.^ residence a bishop must not be absent from

eighteen years professor at Oscott; Rt. Rev. Mgr. his diocese for more than three months, not neces-

Victor J. Schobel, D. D. (d. 1915), professor of ^^^y continuous, the time spent on his canomcal

philosophy at Oulton (1873^), lecturer on phi- ywits to Rome is not to be counted in this, though

losophy and moral philosophy at Oscott (1886-96) ** ^^^, not come immediately after his vacation

and later chaplain at Oulton Abbey; Very Rev. P®"°1 ^?^f V^^, ^ limina). He must be in the

John Canon Caswell (d. 1917). professor at Oscott cathedral dunng Advent and I^nt and on Christmas

(1879-83), vice president of St. Wilfrid's College ^* Pentecost, Corpus Christi, and Easter Sunday.

(1883^), vice president of Oscott (1885-«9), ap- unless he is excused for a grave and urgent reason,

pointed canon of Birmingham (1906) and editor the J[ ^® ^? unlawfully ab^nt from the diocese for more

diocesan "Ordo"; James B. Canon Keating (d. ^^^ "^ months the Holy See must be notified by

1920), ordained in 1877 and transferred to the staff ^^\ metropolitan. ...••• i. *i.

of St. Wilfrid's College in 1884, later appointed Among the privileges granted to bidiops, whether

pastor of St. Patrick's, Walsall, and Sacred Heart residential or titular, are the nght of saying Mass

Church, Hanley, appointed rector of St. Austin's, ^t sea; of allowmg others to say Mass m their

Stafford, in 1889, and nominated Canon of the Presence on a portable altar; of enjoying daUy a

Birmingham Chapter in 1911. Served on Stafford personally pnvileged altar; of following their own

School Board and Board of Guardians. calendar in all churches and oratones; of visiting

their domestic chapels, when a visit to a pubue

Birt, Hbnrt Norbert, ecclesiastical historian, b. church is prescribed for gaining an indulgence; of

1861 at Valparaiso, d. at London, 21 August, 1919. giving the episcopal blessing everjrwhere; however.

He was a fourth son of Hugh Birt, M. D., and on in Rome it may be imparted only in churches,

the maternal side was the great-grandson of John pious places, or at assemblies of the faithful; of

Keogh of Mount Jerome, County Dublin, the leader selecting for themselves and their household a

of the Catholic Constitutional party working for confessor, who, if he lacks it, is granted jurisdiction

emancipation. Educated first at St. Augustine's, by the law and who can absolve them from all sins

Ramsgate, and later at University College School, and censures, except censures reserved very spe-

in 1880 he entered the Benedictine Order at Down- cially to the Holy See or those imposed for no-