BISHOP 109 BISHOP
lating the secrecy of the Holy Office; of preaching Sblsction of BiSHOPS.—By a decree dated 25 everywhere, with at least the presumed leave of July, 1916, the Holy See inaugurated a new method the local ordinary; of celebrating Mass on Holy of selecting bishops for the United States, as the Thursday or three Masses on Christmas Night or previous ^stem often resulted in a long delay in of allowing another to do so in their presence, filling vacancies and did not secure the secrecy that provided they are not obliged to celebrate in the was desired (cf. C. £., 11-584; Eccl. Rev^ LXI, cathedral; of blessing rosaries, crucifixes, medals, 225-34). The following is an outline of the new statues, approved scapulars and of clothing with procedure. About the beginning of Lent every the scapulars without the necessity of enrolment, second year starting from 1917 each biEdiop is to and of granting the usual indulgences; of erecting send to his archbishop the names of one or two Stations of the Cross in churches and all oratories persons whom he believes from long-continued as well as pious places, with the usual indulgences, personal intercourse to be suitable for the episcopal and of annexing the Way of the Cross indulgences office. He may name persons who do not belong to crucifixes for those who are legitimately pre- to his diocese or even province. To aid the bishops vented from visiting the Stations. and the archbishops on their selection they are first
Many faculties which were enjoyed formerly by to ask their diocesan consultors and permanent bishops only in virtue of special indults are now rectprs individually and under the strictest obliga- granted to them by law. Thus they can appoint tion of secrecv to suggest a worthy candidate to examiners and parish priests consultors with the them. When the archbishop has received the names consent of the cathedral chapter when a vacancy he adds his own choice and then having compiled occurs in the interval between synods; they can an alphabetical list of the candidates proposed he give the papal blessing with a plenary indulgence sends it to each of his suffragans, so that they can twice a year and also tn articido mortis; they may discreetly inquire about the nominees. No bishop within limits authorize the alienation of ecclesias- may allow any one except the archbishop to know tical property; they may allow a priest to binate what persons are on ms list. After £aster the or to say Mass outside of a church; they may con- bishops X)f the province meet privately and discuss fer major orders for a serious reason on any Sunday the merits of the priests who have been listed, or holiday of obligation. As the ordinarv power paying particular attention to their age, administra- of bishops has thus been greatly extended (see tive ability, learning, virtue, and lovalty to the (Dispensation) Pope Benedict XV, in order to in- Holy See. When having eliminated those who are troduce greater uniformity throughout the Church, opposed unanimously, they vote on the remaining withdrew the faculties commonly granted to bishops candidates in alphabetical order. Each bish(n> has for a period of three, five, ten, or twenty-five years, three ballots, different in color, white being favor- for the external forum, except in regions subject able, black unfavorable, and another color indicating to the Congregation of Propaganda, where they are that the bishop does not vote. There are two bal- to continue in force for the present. lot boxes, one for the ballots indicating the vote
Religious who become bishops are subject to the cast, the other for the two remaining ballots, pope alone, and not to the superiors of their order; The archbishop votes first and secrecy is observed if thev have been solemnly professed, they can by all. The archbishop and* a bishop acting as see- nevertheless use and administer temporal gooos and retary then count the ballots in presence of the acquire property for their territories; they may others and the result is noted in writing. The reside in any house of their order, but have neither bishop should, if possible indicate for what kind active nor passive voice in the affairs of the order, of a diocese, e. g., large or small, organized or new,
CoADjrTOB Bishops. — A coadjtitor is usually the candidate would be best fitted. A record of granted to a bishop personally with the right of the proceedings including the balloting must be succession (without this right he is termed an drawn up by the secretary and after oeing read auxiliary bishop), but sometimes he is granted to aloud by the archbishop must be signed by all. A a see. If the bishop is entirely incapacitated the copy similarly signed is sent to the Consistorial coadjutor has all his rights and duties, unless limited Congregation, through the Apostolic delegate, while by the letters of appointment; otherwise he has only the original is. kept in the ^archiepiscopal archives what the bishop allows him. The bishop should not for a year, after which it must be destroyed. The habitually delegate to another what the coadjutor decree invited the bishops to communicate 'vrith the can and is willing to do, and the latter must, if Holy See between these biennial meetings if they requested by the bishop, carry out the episcopal think it advisable to give any further information duties, unless justly prevented from doing so. A about candidates. Needless to say all this pro- coadjutor granted to a see may exercise all exclu- cedure is merely to assist the Holy See, which sively episcopal powers within his territory, except remains free to select any person to fill a vacancy, the conferring of sacred ordination; in other mat- even one whose name was not on the list, ters he mav act only as far as the Holy See or the The new system proved successful and has since bishop authorizes him. Coadjutors enter into their been introduced with minor variations into other office canonicall^ bv showing their Apostolic letters countries. It was established for Canada and New- to the bishop; if they have the right of succession foundland in 1919, the voting taking place every or have been granted to a see they must exhibit second year from 1920. The bishops there need the letters to the chapter also; if the bishop should not consult anyone about suitable candidates; in be incapable of eliciting a human act the letters their choice they must mention the age, birthplace, need be shown only to the chapter. No coadjutor residence, and office of the candidates. The bishops should absent himself from the diocese, except of the provinces of Kingston and Toronto vote during his vacation, for more than a short time together, under the direction of the senior arch- without the bishop's leave. On the bishop's death, bishop, so, too do, those of the provinces of Saint the coadjutor with right of succession immediately Boniface, Regina, and Winnipeg, under the presi- becomes the diocesan ordinary provided he has dency of the- archbishop of Winnipeg; and finally taken canonical possession; a coadjutor granted to the bishops of the provinces of Edmonton and a see retains his office during a vacancy, but an Vancouver, under the senior archbishop. The rec- auxiliary's office would terminate on the bishop's ords are forwarded to the Consistorial Congregation death, unless his letters provide otherwise. by the Apostolic delegate.