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two years, or both such fine and imprisonment Bobbie, Abbet and Diocese of (Bobibnsib; cf. C. may be imposed. These penalties are much greater E., II-605b), in the province of Pavia, in Northern than those provided for many crimes and misde- Italy, sufifragan of Genoa. Rt. Rev. Luigi Marelli, meanors which are mala in se, (See Connecticut appointed to this see 16 December, 1907, was trans- Statute of 1921.) f erred, 15 December, 1914, and the present incima-

The laws of the Commonwealth of England, imder bent, Rt. Rev. Pietro Calchi-Novati, was appointed

the Presbyterians and Independents, were of the to succeed him 21 December of the same year,

same character as those of New England, but According to 1921 statistics this diocese comprises

generally more rigorous and severe. Hume de- a Catholic population of 30,100, and has 55 pandies,

scribes them in his "History of England," as fol- 80 secular priests, 16 sisters, 25 seminarians, and 105

lows: "The gloomy enthusiasm which prevailed churches or chapels.

among the Parliamentary party is surely the most -o^.*^** o -n' * /t» curioii spectacle presented in any histoid; and the ^®«?**' i^.Vlo ^^ ^rchdiocesb op (Bogotbn- most instructive is well as entertaining to a philo- f^l} <^f- ^z .?., II-612c) m Colombia, South Amenca. sophical mind. All recreations were in a manner This archdiocese is the pnmatial see of Cdomb^ suspended by the rigid severity of the Presbyterians *?^,^ ^ present (1922) under the administration and Independents. Horse races and cock matches f« ^^ /^^^- ?/'?f o Herrera-Restrepo, b. in were prohibited as the greatest enormities. Even ^\^^^y Kf^?^' ^l ?f^^^?Tllr}^S ^PP°*^J^ bear-baiting was esteemed heathenish and unchri*- J^^^^P ^|«J?^^^^*^.27 March, 1855, and promoted tian; the sport of it, not the inhumanity, gave of- ^ June 1891. He is assisted by anauxihaiy, Rt. fense. Though the English nation be miturally ^^\ Leonidas Medma, titular Bishop of Ca- candid and sincere, hypocrisy prevailed among them ""^^^^^ > ^?i\ ?• o^^l'^'^'u ?"^^^^^^i<^ Congre® beyond any example in ancient or modem times." ^^ ^^^^^ ^'^® /i?~^f nS?P^°? • ! -^ ^?u ^a- ^^^^ ^^* It is possible, and indeed probable, that there was ^"?^^^;^%:n^?f i^? statistics the diocese com- much hypocrisy among the Puritans of New Eng- P"8f« ^S^.OOO Catholics, besides 20,000 Indian in- land; but a law in the Connecticut code prepared fidels. 120 secular and 70 regular clergy, and 210 by Roger Ludlow, and adopted in 1646, seems to churches or chapels.

show a high sense of humanity. It was this: "It Bohemia (cf. C. E., II-612d), formerly a crown- is ordered by this Court and authority thereof that land and titular kingdom of Austria, but after the no man shall exercise any tyranny or cruelty downfall of the dutd monarchy a member of the towards any brute creatures which are usually kept new Czechoslovakia (q.v.), bounded on the north for the use of man." by Saxony and Silesia, on the east by Moravia,

The settlers of New England, being nearly all and Lower and Upper Austria. The area is 20.067

Presb3rterians and Independents, which latter are sq. miles and the population, according to the latest

called Congregationalists in America, were of course census, that of 1910, 6,769,548 (337 to the sq. mile),

given to the same fanatical religious views and gov- In 1913 it was estimated at 6,860,029. The 1910

emed themselves bjr a rigor similar to that found census gives for Bohemia about 4^242,000 Czechs

among their co-religionists in England. The perse- to 2,468,000 Germans, or 63 per cent Czechs to 37

cution of the Quakers, and other sects differing from per cent Germans.

themselves was common to all the New England Reugion.— According to the census of 1910 there

Colonies; and their hatred of the Catholic Reli|;ipn were 6,475,935 Catholics, 117,832 Evangelists, 85,826

was nothing less than a mania. But if we consider Jews, and 30,005 of other faiths,

the persecution of James Naylor, the mad Quaker For further religious statistics see Czechoslovakia;

of Bristol, the cruelty of the English seems much Prague, Archdiocese of; Litomericb, Diocesb

f "eater than that of the Colonists; and if the phrase or; Budbjovigb, Diocese of; Hradec Kbalov6, Dio-

lue Laws means, as Peters says, "bloody laws," cesb of.

then it is more applicable to Old England than Education. — ^The language question has always

to New, and although the use of the term is been involved in the establisnment and mainte-

chiefly confined to Connecticut, a fair investigation nance of schools. The German Schulverein waa

of the facts of history shows that it is less applicable the first in the field and had the wealth of the

there than to other parts of New England. Germans behind it. In 1880 the Czechs founded

As to religious persecutions, there was no place the Matice SkolskA (Mother of Schools), which

in North America except the Catholic Colony of provided schools as soon as there were enough

Maryland, where they were not at least as rigorous Czech children to need them, and forced the Gov-

as in Connecticut. Indeed they were a feature of ernment to take over its schools when the number

the Protestantism of the time. Phiilimore, in his of children entitled them to state support. In the

"Reign of George III," cited by Mr. Trumbull in German area of north Bohemia there are, according

his work on the Blue Laws, says : "To exercise the to the latest statistics, 108 schools educating 10,000

right of private judgment, so far as to quit the Czech children. The Matice is said to have founded

Church of Rome, which had governed Christendom 55 primary schools in Bohemia and 14 in Moravia,

for centuries, was the duty of every Christian; but in addition to 61 creches. In the Czech quarter of

to exercise it so far as to dififer with the Articles, Vienna an educational society, the '* Union Komen--

put out one hundred years before by a church that ^fcy," made great efiforts to maintain Czech classes

did not pretend to be infallible and teachers that and private schools, as all the public schools were

laid no claim to inspiration, was a crime to be German, even in places of large Czech majorities,

punished, in some instances by the stake, in all j^ 1914 inhere were 3,359 Czech elementary schoob

others by confiscations, by the lash and shears of jq Bohemia as against 2,334 German schools. The

the hangman, and bv the pestilential dungeon, Czech national movement devoted particular atten-

within the walls of which was death." tion to educational problems, and long before the

R°S?r'8o'o^S'^.*5SrP^."SS;5LfoJi?/^: war, Bohemia possessed a complete network of

nectieut (New York. 1877); Loom is and Calhouk. Judicial SChooIS and colleges, leading Up tO the famOUS

and Civil History of Connecticut (Boston, 1895); Trumbull, Caroline University in Prague, and the percentage

Blue Laws True and False (Hartford. 1876) ; Hinman. Blue j illiteracy WaS as low among the Czechs aS among

Lauis of New Haven, etc. (Hartford, 1838); Barber, ton- ./ . ^ -^ • \^\^ rru i a a * *• *• /inno\

nectieut Historical Collections (New Hnven. 1838). their German neighbors. The latest statistics (1920)

D. J. Donahue. give 194 middle schools of Bohemia, of which 72