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are retained by the Germans; also 22 industrial In Latin America, West Indies, Mexico, Central achools, 9 of which are German. and South America the American Moravians had.

Recent History (1909-1920).— The year 1909 was in 1920, 16,070 communicants and 11,812 enrolled marked by an acute racial struggle, accentuated by in schools. The general missionary work of the heavy deficits in the Bohemianoudgets and imem- Moravians is carried on jointly in 18 fields by ployment. Measures for the free use of Czech the American and European branches, and it is and for the division of the country into 20 adminis- reported that the proportion of missionaries to trative and judicial districts, of wMch 10 were to members is about 1 to 60, the usual ^rotestant be Czech, 6 German, and 4 mixed, were submitted proportion beins 1 to about 5,000. to the Diet, but no settlement was made. In In 1920 the Moravians reported in the United January, 1911, Count Francis Thun took office as States 136 churches, 183 ministers, and 28,000 mem- governor at the emperor's request, but all com- bers, and in 1922 31,767 members. In 1917 the promise failed, and as a result the governor enrolment in the 14 missionary provinces of the appointed, on 26 July, 1913, an Imperial Adminis- church was 109,000, and its grand total in all coun- trative Commission and dissolved the Diet. With tries was 156,000, besides 70,000 members of the the outbreak of the Great War Bohemia found itself state churches of Europe.

subjected to a political reign of terror, which was ^^PT^^'J^!f-^^^^,;!ii '{5 ^P^^*°^ SA^^^\r^^^^°^.' ^V^V supported by mUitary an5 police espionage and ?^„r flSWcSf. St')".'^"' ""^' J^l^'w™! censorship. To the last man, the Czechs were ^' -'*•• vvbbbb.

keenly ^posed to war with their Slavonic kinsmen Bolano, Diocese of (Boianensis; cf. C. E., on the Eastern and Southern fronts, and with the II-622d), in the province of Campobasso, Southern Western democracies, which represented their po- Italy, suffragan of Benevento. Rt. flev. Felice litical ideal. On the Russian front Czech regi- Gianfelice, appointed to this see 1897, died 9 June, ments, like the Jugoslav regiments on the Balkan 1916, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, front, again and again surrendered, either en masse Rt. Rev. Alberto Romita, b. in Cegli del Campo or in part, without firing a shot, to an "enemy" 1880, appointed 22 March, 1917. The diocese com- whom they regarded as a deliverer. They even prises a Catholic population of 90,300, and by the formed whole regiments a^d then brigades to fight 1921 statistics is credited with 40 parishes, 175 on the Entente side. secular and 19 regular clergy, 30 seminarians, 20

For the Czech expedition to Siberia see Czecho- Brothers, 10 Sisters, and 134 churches or chapels.

"m"pari8 Peace Conference in 1919 decided to jJ^^\ ^^J^y}J^Sf^TfAtL% ^k ^A give Czechoslovakia a 'strategic frontier on the ^^^^l t^Z^'^f tht ^^^ V^^'.J^'i^^ northwest, instead of an ethno^aphic frontier. The ^fe?^* h^„*^Sffi ..n^n fhfii^L^^^^ line of the Giant Mountains is the natural geo- £^°iS|J^kipS'2T^i,Kt ?017 T^riTh^J^^Z graphic border between Saxony and CzechoslovaTda, 'J'Jf^^' ff ? ^A.^Tku .^l;»=Sf^.^™tf^^ ^it has the advantage from the Bohemian point e'fXit Rt B,.v ^n^Pl aT Vn,t,?n fpLSl of view of being a defensible border; the (fisad- '3^ ts^*' ,qi«\ ^^In^Up^f^ht A^^ vantage is that a solid mass of Germans live on ?™*T ^ ^^^^ ^^^% the progress of this diocese

  • uI^T,tir^^^ tul JZ^^*^r,a i^ thT*l,^tr^r» "^ "^en verjT rapid. Many new churches and

Jw1?,™l t^ti \n^^^^prm«n R^^^^ c'^'Pels Iwve been crectcd and schools and insUtu- that has come to be known as German Bohemia, ^j^^ ^^p^^^j. g^ j^^.^ cathedral at Boise was

Bohemian Brethren (Moravian Bbbihrbn, or ^^^^i^r.'^'t.t'^'^^T^^J^^^'v^^'^t'f^^^ Unwas Fratbum; cf, C. E.. II-616a).-In addition have been opened at Nampa, PocateUq; high ilrtkT »«-„«! w^,r ^ ihL Ttr^iV^ fitlt^ Z^uilh flcnools at Moscow and Pocatello; new parishes at to the general body in the XJmted States which ^win Falls, Buhl, Caldwell, Hailey, Kellogg, Mul- owed ite orgamsation to the first immigration of j Thomcreek and PocateUoTM well m many Schwenkfelders m 1734, there are two other separate _ ' „;_^„„. „„j " j* vv^i.1. ""mj-

organizations. The firrt is known as the EvanieUcal ^^urn^^i «£ ™^°i^ a^ ™,j.i.». oi uSon of Bohemian and Moravian Brethren in _ J.^t JV^* .P^f rf°??PJ^x *h P?5f?5?' ,?1

to the United States after the revolutionary dia- '" °* uT 7 V^ii^ «„. oili IrVuJi'^,,. w«^« ? 1.^ orders of 1848. The membere from eastern Moravia Ur^th^^ Jj^f^il^rilt^T t^^^hJ III settled in Texas. In 1864 the firet congregation was fathers, and 25 scnunanans. A few years ago nli;Ti^*».or^»tr f^^AutJ. .„5 i^ lona 4i.» there were no high schools, while now there are 6,

r.Strihar^ob^rned.'"ir92trhS"^^ girl students. Among the charitable .institution,

repoi^dta diurchea, aU in Texas, 44 ministers, «f„* ^^^ missions, 2 homes, 6 hospitals, and 1 and 1714 membera^ *«=*«>. " miujovcio, settlement house. There are 3 orgamzations formed

Th^ second body is listed in the United States f„Tw* *^p^ ^JTrn^f h^TrS,i^l,W^t 'l^iltS^^ reports as the "Independent Bohemian and Mora- '/Z „r,Tnf td £S« °'°*"y "^ circulated m

viLn Brethren Churches." This is a loose union "^S?*!,^ °I* WnrM w;r „„♦ , t ^t

of three congregations in Iowa wWch, while claim- , ^T^.i^tn 3.? -n^^n.^? tL^lL* ?<,"°^<.^f ing the sanTe Srigin as the two otW bodies of i'/^^r^^ri iSfrf M n™!,, J^^t^^^^ ft&iavian Brethren, are not ecclesiastically con- ?[ it!*/{i'h^» n J ?f^S ' JtL^^^ at Fismes nected with either. In educational and misdonary i^JLw*,^^„£°^„f°l*l^»j°^^i'°°ii,*'*'^ *^'*" work they are afiSliated with the Central Wert 'I'l^^^'f Ji^'^P^'ii"*,;?:"^*^^^^ (Bohemiai) Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church ?^Jtu^'^J,'l?Zi^^i^^^^^J,?^^^■ J^ *°**' bi the United States of America. li 1916 they re- ^5t^°l*L^?P",'o*J^ t ^^'^J^^'^At^^"^ ^T' ported 320 members and 14 officers and teachers. fe^-,S^"A.,A*Ajf..o. ^K^. °^«^°'^'V^'^

The Moravian church is a member of the Federal 2^ «! "^ p"i*I^'r<^°fa"f„' .^/ «T^' -^^^ ^™ Council of the Churches of Christ in America. It Germans, Poles. Croatians and Bohemians.

is also taking part in the preparations for the World Bois-Ie-Dne, Diocese of (Bttsooducenbis; cf. C. Conference on Faith and Order. E., II-625b), in Holland, also known as s'Herto-