of 37,535 including 372 Germans, 12,209 Brazilians, and the polytechnic school hitherto maintained and 2£2,154 of other nationalities. In lfiK20 Brazil was separate mstitutions in Rio de Janeiro, much concerned over the question of immigration There are faculties of law at Recife, Sao Paulo, and as the settlement of the country was not pro- Ceara, Goyaz, Para, Bahia, Bello Horizonte, and ceeding rapidly enough, measures were taken for Porto Alegre; faculties of medicine at Rio de facilitating the entry of Jews from Ukraine in Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Curit3rba, Bahia, and Porto November and settling them on public lands. Alegre; colleges of pharmacy at Ouro Preto, Belem, Rbugion. — ^The latest religious statistics (1917), Juiz de Fori, Porto Alegre, and Sao Paulo; schools give 24,373,579 Catholics and 70,268 Protestants, of odontology at Bello Horizonte, Porto Alegre, There are about 8,280 churches and 4,005 clergy, and also attached to the colleges of medicine and The entire republic is divided into twelve Metro- pharmacy; engineering colleges at Ouro Preto, politan sees; Sao Salvador do Bahia (diocese 1552, Bahia, Recife, Porto Alegre, and Sao Paulo, and archdiocese 1676) ; suffragans, Barra do Rio Grande since 1916, a school of Economics and Politics in (1913), Caetite (1913), Uheos (1913); Belem do Rio de Janeiro. According to the latest available Para (diocese 1719, archdiocese 1906), suffragans, statistics, there are in the various states 12,744 Sao Louis do Maraxihao, 1676, Amazonas or Manaos, primary schools with 700,120 pupils and 20,590 teach- Piauhy (1902); Cuyaba (diocese 1826, archdiocese ers. Of the total number 85 were federal, 6,985 were 1910), suffragans, Sao Luis de Caceres (1910), state government schools, and 2,647 municipal Corumba (1910); Diamantina (diocese 1854, arch- schools. There were 327 secondary schools with diocese 1917), suffragans, Arassuahy (1913), Montes- 30,258 pupils and 151 professional schools with claros (1910); Fortaleza or Ceara (diocese 1854, 19^294 pupils. The National Library in Rio con- archdiocese 1915) « suffragans, Crato (1914), Sorbal tains more than 400,000 books and manuscripts. (1915); Marianna (diocese 1745, archdiocese 1906), EooNOMics.^For 1920-1^1 the estimated coffee suffragans, Aterrado (1918), Goyaz (1826), Porto crop was 7.143,000 bags. About half of the world's Nacional (1915), Pouso Alegre (1900), XJberaba supply of India rubber comes from Brazil, the prin- (1907) ; Maceio (erected 1900 as diocese of Alagoas, cipal rubber growing districts being Ceara, Manaos, name changed 1917, archdiocese 1920), suffragans, and Para. In 1917, the rubber crop was 41,500 tons; Aracaju (1909), Penedo (1916); Olinda and Recife the cotton crop, 75,000 tons (119,500 tons in 1919). (diocese 1676^ archdiocese 1910), suffragans, Garan- The yield of cocoa in 1918 was 60,000 tons; the huns (1918), Nazareth (1918), Pesqueira (erected average annual tobacco crop is 50,000,000 kilos; the 1910 as diocese of Floresta, name changed 1918); yield of sugar, 300,000 tons (399,600 in 1919-20). Parahyba (diocese 1892, archdiocese 1914), suffra- Up to 1916 rice was largely imported but now is so gans, Cajazeiras (1914), Natal (1909) ; Porto Alegre extensively grown, that there were nearly 30,000 tons (Diocese of Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul 1848, exported during 1919. There were in 1918, 202 cot- archdiocese imder present name 1910), suffragans, ton factories with 1,500,722 spindles and 78,186 work- Santa Catharina or Florianopolis (1918), Pelotas men; and in 1919, 36 woolen factories and 1,400 (1910), Santa Maria (1910), Uruguayana (1910); looms. Altogether there are (1920) 11,335 factories Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro (diocese 1676, in Brazil, with a capital of 665,676,000 milreia and archdiocese 1892), suffragans, Spinto Santo (1895), 151^41 employees.
Nictheroy or Petropolis (1893) ; Sao Paulo (diocese The forest area of Brazil has been estimated at
1745, archdiocese 1908), suffragans, Botucatu (1908), 1,500,000 sq. miles, and in 1919 woods to the value
Campinas (1908), Curityba do Parana (1892), Sao of $3,500,000 were exported. Expressed in terms
Carlos do Pinhal (1908), Ribeirao Preto (1908), of United States currency, adopting the rate of
Taubate (X908); three prefectures apostolic: Rio SIXX) to 3^16 milreis, the trade of Brazil for two
Negro (1910), Solimoes Superiore (1910), Teffe years was
(1910); five prelatures nullius: Acre and Purus #oJ?5S^iet •oo^^^Lto. •ro.TSiSo./.
(1919). Bom Jesus de Piauhy (1920), Conceicao 1^18 1247,351,151 $284,275,068 $531,626,219
or Saita C^^^^ do Araguaya (1911), Regi^ro 1919 346,907;226 566,467,038 913,374;»4
do Araguaya (1914), Santarem (1903). The Statistics show that 41.39 per cent of the exports Brazilian legation to the Holy See was elevated went to the United States; 2128 percent to France; to the rank of an ambassy in 1919. Brazil is an 7J24 per cent to the United Kingdom. The import apostolic nimciature of the second class, the nuncio trade by percentages was: 48 per cent from the residing at Rio de Janeiro. For Catholic statistics United States; 16.15 per cent from the United King- see articles on subjects listed above. dom; 3.97 per cent from Portugal.
Education. — ^Education is free, but not compul- The recurring famines of northeastern Brazil have
sory except in several municipalities in Sao Paulo, called the attention of the government to the neces-
which insist on compulsory education (e. g. Ribeirao sity of conserving and utilizing the water supply
Preto). It is under the supervision of the Govern- of the country by means of great dams and reser-
ment, primary education being controlled by the yoirs in order to reclaim by irrigation the arid lands
States and municipalities. In order to make indus- in that section of the country. Brazil posseted
trial education more general, the Federal Govern- on 31 March, 1919, railways open for traffic of a
ment under some circumstances, aids a state, total length of 18,708 miles; of these 9,445 miles
municipal or private school which meets require- were the property of the Union,
ments, and also aids schools in agricultural colonies. The consolidated foreign debt of Brazil on 31
148 such schools being assisted in the State of Santa December, 1919, amounted to £116,281,960 and
Catharina and 96 in the State of Parand. The 322^49,500 francs; and the total currency was 1,749,-
Federal government maintains a secondary school, 974,000 milreis. In July, 1912, a Bill was introduced
the CoUegio Pedro II, in Rio de Janeiro, which is into the Senate, making it necessary for the States to
the standard for state and private secondary insti- obtain Federal authorization before contracting any
tutions desiring government recognition. Higher loans.
education is given mainly in separate professional Government^— Brazil is a federal republic of 20
schools rather than in universities, but on 7 Septem- states, 1 federal district, and a national territorjr.
ber, 1920, the Federal Government consolidated The site for the Federal capital has been selected in
into a university the faculties of medicine and law the State of Goyaz, on a table-land between Pjrre-