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bcrt Hedley, O.S.B., who had filled the see of ahead of all the cardinal priests who received the

Newport and Menevia (changed to Newport 1896) sacred purple after him. If a submbicahan see

from 1881, died 11 November, 1915. Archbishop becomes vacant, cardinal priests who at that time

Bilsborrow was born 27 August, 1862, ordained 1889, are in the Curia or are temporarily absent from

consecrated Bishop of Port Louis 24 Februai^, 1911, it transacting business for the pope, can exercise

and translated from that see to Cardiff, wnich he the right of option regarding the vacant see, observ-

resigned, owing to illness, 1 September, 1920. ing priority of promotion. Cardinals to whom a

The second archbishop and present incumbent, suburbicarian see has been assigned cannot exercise

Most Rev. Francis Mostyn, bom 6 August, 1860, an option on another; however, the dean of the

ordained 14 September, 1884. consecrated Vicar cardinals, that is the cardinal who has held a subur-

Apostolic of Wales 14 September, 1895, translated bicarian see longest, is always appointed Bishop of

to Menevia 14 May, 1898, was promoted to the Ostia, while retaining his old see. Cardinals are

Archdiocese of Cardiff 19 March, 1921. obliged to reside at the papal court and may not

On 12 March, 1920, a secular chapter consisting absent themselves without the pope's leave; how-

of eight canons was erected and the regular chapter ever, the cardinal suburbicarian bishops require no

ceased to exist. During the World War few of the permission to go to their dioceses; tnose who are

clergy could be spared, but five of the secular and bishops of non-suburbicarian dioceses are exempt

five regular priests entered the service as chaplains, from residence at court, but when they come to

and the Catholic men enlisted out of all proportion Rome they must present themselves before the

to their numbers and many of them were killed. Sovereign Pontiff and may not leave the City

By present (1921) statistics the archdiocese num- without asking his permission,

bers: 53 missions, 53 churches, 32 stations, 1 abbey Pbivilbges. — ^Among the privileges which every

of men, 22 convents of women, 53 secular and 52 cardinal enjoys from the time of his promotion in

regular clergy, 5 high schools with 50 teachers and the consistory are the ri^ht: of hearing confes-

an attendance of 899, 1 training school with 4 sions, even those of religious of either sex any-

teachers and an attendance of 60, 39 elementary where, and of absolving from all sins and censures,

schools with 408 teachers and an attendance of except censures reserved very specially to the Holy

12,604, 3 industrial schools with 12 teachers and See, and those arising from a violation of the

an attendance of 314, one secondary and all the secrecy of the Holy Office; of choosing for himself

elementary schools are aided by the government, and his attendants any confessor who, if he lacks

There are 3 homes for children, one of which cares jurisdiction, obtains it by bding thus selected, even

for the aged as well, 1 hospital in charge of the in regard to all sins and censures, except the cen-

Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary, and sures just mentioned as being beyond the com-

3 refuge homes for women. A fund for infirm petence of a cardinal; of preacning eveiywhere; of

secular clergy is established and there is a Catholic celebrating Mass on Holy Thu^day and tnrec

Young Men's Society among the laity; one parish Masses at night on Christmas, or of permitting

magazine and the Welsh Catholic Herald (a a priest to do so in his presence; of celebrating

weekly) are published. Mass on a portable altar not only at home, but

Cardinal (of. C. E., in-333b).— Cardinals are wherever he is^ and of allowing another Mass to

priests or bishops chosen freely by the pope to be said on it m his presence; of saying Mass at

aid him by their advice and co-operation in the sea, on taking the proper precautions; of saying

?;ovemment of the Church. They may be chosen Mass according to his own calendar in any church rom any nation, but the Code now provides that or oratory; of enjoying a personally privileged only those who have received priestly orders are altar daily; of fining in his private chapel all the to be selected. The college of cardinals is now indulgence which are conditioned on a visit to a limited to 70 members, 6 cardinal bishops, 50 cardi- church or public building in the place where he is nal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. The official stopping, a privilege which may be enjoyed by his "Annuario Pontificio" for 1921, however, gives a attendants also; of bestowing; the episcopal bleas- list of 53 cardinalitial titles and 16 cardmalitial ing everywhere, but if he is m Rome this may be deaconries: S. Maria della Scala and S. Maria in given only m churches and holy places and at Cosmedin are now permanent deaconries, but SS. gatherings of the faithful; of carrying a pectoral Cosma e Damiano and S. Maria in Aquirio have cross over his mozzetta, and of using the mitre and been raised for this occasion to the rank of presby- pastoral sta£f; of celebrating Mass in any private teral titles. The following persons are excluded chapel, but without prejudice to the individual from the cardinalate: (a) tnose who are of illegiti- holding the indult; of pontificating with a throne mate birth, and those who are irregular or pre- and canopy in any church outside of Rome: how- vented by canonical descipline from exercising tneir ever, if the church is a cathedral, the cardinal must sacred orders, notwithstanding the fact that by first inform the ordinary; of sharing eveiywhere Apostolic authority they maynave been dispensed the honors usually accorded to local ordmaries; so as to receive orders and dignities not excluding of speaking with authority in the external forum, the episcopal; (b) those who have a living legiti- when testifjdng as to papal pronouncements; of mate child or grandchild, or (c) those who are having a chapel exempt from the ordinary's visita- related by blood in the first or second degree to tion; of freelv disposing, even by will, of what has any living cardinal. been acquired with the income from his benefices — Clerics who are promoted to the sacred purple however, a cardinal having a domicile in Rome by the very fact not only vacate their dignities, must leave to the pontifical treasury his sacred churches, and benefices, but lose their ecclesiastical equipment, except his rings and pectoral cross —

while respecting priority of oroer and promotion, lie oratory, pious place, ecclesiastic or member of can take another title; so, too, cardinal deacons a religious institute; of consecrating and blesing may select another deaconry, and if they have churches, altars, altar equipment, abbots, etc., any- been cardinal deacons for ten years can become where, but observing the due formaliti^; however, cardinal priests. In the last case the cardinal ranks he may not consecrate the sacred oils if he is not