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the present incumbent, Rt. Rev. Ajtapito Augusto Oathedraticiiin (cf. C. E., III-441b).— All Giovanni Fiorentini, was appointea his successor churches or benefices under the jurisdiction of the 25 September, 1919. Bom m Castrocaro, 1867, he bishop, as well as all lay confraternities have to was appointed Bishop of Tricarico, 27 June, 1909, pay the cathedraticum annually. -The amount of and filled that see until his transfer. A rejgional this tax, if not fixed by ancient custom, is to be seminary was erected in Catanzaro by Pius X determined by a provincial council or a meeting of and conferred degrees for the first time, 7 January, the bishops of the province; the decision of the 1918. Eight seminarians received the degree of bishops, however, has no force until it has been Bachelor of Theology, and at the same time a approved by the Holy See. feast was solemnly celebrated in honor of Pius X; code jw, can,, 1503-07.

Pope Benedict XV blessed the reunion, and Car- Catholic Acton' Ooild of America, Thb, was dinals Gasparri, Bisleti, and de Lai sent telegrams organised in March, 1914, by Rev. John Talbot of congratulation to the rector, Mgr. Coccia. Smith and a number of prominent Catholic actors

The 1920 statistics credit this diocese with 85,000 in order to brin^ the Catholic actor and playgoer Catholics, 48 parishes, 5 vicariates, 80 secular and together in social intercourse, to stimulate the one 6 regular clergv, 21 seminarians, 5 Brothers, 36 Sis- by encouragement and the other to a deeper inter- ters, and 97 churches or chapels. est in the stage, to assist the Catholic actors in any

proper way ana to prepare for the Catholic theater

Oatenlan Association, The, which takes its and drama of the future." At the time of its insti- name for the Latin word catena — a chain, is a tution the Church had let down the barriers erected British fraternal organization, strictly Catholic, con- against the modem stage. Since in the days of stitutional, and non-political. Membership is con- morality plays, the drama was an effective teacher fined to la3rmen of the professional and commercial in moral and religious training, it was deemed classes. Foimded in Manchester in June, 1908, the advisable to bring this great and beneficent force association now has "circles" (symbolized by an into modem Catholic life and thought, and by so endless chain), in London and most of the prin- doing rescue this important social institution from cipal towns of Great Britain. The primary object the secularism that had so completely absoibed it of the association is the cultivation of social inter- and lowered its standards. The logical way to course amongst its members in the belief that bring this about was to devise ways and means to such friendly union is conducive not only to the aid the members of the theatrical profession and individual and collective prosperity of Catenians, direct their influence into proper channels. They but also to the genercJ advancement of the Catho- were no longer frowned upon, out were considered lie cause. A certain portion of each circle's annual as human beings. Many of them were Catholics, revenue is allocated to a central benevolent fund and of th^ number, some by reason of their from which practical aid is given to such members nomadic existence, had grown out of touch with who in the strenuousness of life have fallen di»- Catholic ideals and principles, tressed by the wayside." A special feature of The aims and work of the Guild comprehend all Catenian activity is the furtherance of the interests phases of helpful care for the spiritual and tern- of Catholic youths entering professional and com- poral welfare of the theatrical profession. Although mercial life. Applicants for memberships must have not a religious organization in the restricted sense reached their twenty-fifth year, except sons of of the word, it is conscious of its obligation to pro- members who are admitted at twenty-one. Ac- vide all possible means by which the members of cording to its' present constitution, membership is the profession may keep in touch with their re- reserved to those who have attained to recogmzed ligious duties. Throush its chaplain, specially de- positions of definite responsibility (members^ sons signated by the Archbishop of New York, many excepted). There is a tendency, however, to relax avenues have been developed by which this is pos- the original restrictions, and to adapt the organiza- sible. Every year during Holv Week a spiritual tion to the needs of the times. Normally, the retreat for Actors is held, and at a later date a association, as such, does not identify itself with solemn Mass of requiem for the deceased members any work outside its own special province, but two of the profession. Through the courtesy of the exceptions (understood not to be precedents) have pastor of St. Malachy's Church, a special Masa been made: (1) In 1915 at a meeting of the tor actors is said every Sunday at 11:30, at "Grand Circle" of the Association held in London, which the ushers, singers, etc., are all connected a resolution was unanimously adopted by virtue of with the profession. The Guild has met a long- which the Association undertook the sponsorship felt need m placing in every theater and theatrical of a special issue of the Catholic Encyclopedia hotel in the country a decorative placard contain- (this was published as the "Catenian Edition," ing information as to the situation of the nearest and by its effective circulation, much useful Catholic church, the hours of Masses, confessions, work was accomplished in overcoming Protestant etc. Arrangements have been made with New prejudices and misconceptions of Catholic teach- York hospitals whereby the ofiice of the Guild is ing.) (2) At the request of the English hier- to be notified on admission of a Catholic member archy, personally voiced by Cardinal Bourne (1920) of the profession. It co-operates actively with all and suDsequently renewed by Pope Benedict XV, theatrical relief organizations and cares for all cases the Catenian Association undertook to raise where Catholics are concerned. Its burial plot in amongst its members funds to enable the CoUe^io Calvary Cemetery offers a solution of the problem Beda, Rome, to tide over a period of financial of Christian burial of Catholic members of the stringency; tnis purpose having Dccn accomplished, profession. Its afiiliation with the National Catho- the association is now concerned with a scheme to lie Welfare Council has opened avenues by which enable the college to be re-established, free from actors who are taken ill en tour may be cared for, debt, in a new and permanent home. During the and this by reason of their constant travel has war the Catenian Association co-operated, on their made a special appeal to the actor of every denomi- own territory, with the Knights of Columbus in nation, and has impressed upon the profession the their work for the temporal and spiritual welfare interest of the Church in their temporal as well as of men on active service. their spiritual welfare.

E. Vincent Wareinq. As New York is the mecca of all aspirants to the