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Penn-Yan, N. Y., 29 October, 1849, consecrated in superstition. The Macassar language is spoken in Rome 23 August, 1903, d. of cholera 28 November, part^ of the southern peninsula, out Beguinese has 1909. He was succeeded by his auxiliary, Rt. Rev. a much larger area, and is the most cultivated Juan Bautista Gorordo, b. in Barili, Cebu, 20 April, and copious.

18IS2, made prelate of the Holy See 17 October. For administrative purposes the Dutch have di- 1905, appointed titular Bishop of Nilopolis and vided the island into the Government of Celebes, auxiliary at Cebu 24 April, 1909, succeeded 27 with dependencies, and the Residence of Menado, November, 1911. ^ administered by a Dutch governor. According to

The principal events of the diocese in recent the official estimate the population in 1917 was years were the celebration of the golden jubilee of 3,094,074. The capital is the town of Macassar, the coming of the Mission Fathers, and on 16 where all the products of the neighboring islands, March, 1921, the four hundredth anniversary of the as well as those of Celebes itself, are sold. The discovery of the Philippine Islands. The following chief harbor of the north is that of Kema. persons of note have died in the diocese in recent Celebes was first discovered by the Portuguese years: Rev. Juan Alcoseba, author of popular Cath- in 1512. In 1607 the Dutch formed a connection olio books; Rev. Domic^o Javier, author of a with Macassar and in 1618 obtained a definite

Sopular theology; Rev. Filigonio Solon, editor: establishment there. By the treaty of Bongo (or [on. Segundo Singzon, ex-Governor of Samar and Banga) in 1666 the Dutch were recognissed as pro- judge of the Court of First Instance ; Senor Leoncio tectors, and have gradually extended their influence Alburo, ex-member of the Cebii Provincial Board; till in the nineteenth century they made their Sefior Mariano A. Cuenco, Catholic controver- supremacy complete. A series of revolts of various sialist and poet. The diocese comprises a wholly chiefs in 1905-6 was quelled after considerable Catholic population, chiefly Filipinos, numbering fighting.

1,368,274. These are served through 93 parishes, The Celebes Islands (db Celebes), Prefecturb 96 churches, 2 mission stations, 2 convents of men Apobtouc of, erected 19 November, 1919, compris- and 3 of women, 90 secular and 47 regular clergy, ing the Island of Celebes and eight adjacent islands. 6 lay brothers, 26 Sisters, 1 seminary, 30 semi- These islands were evangelized in the sixteenth narians, 1 college for men with 23 i)rofessors and century by Portuguese missionaries, but after the 500 students, 1 college for women with 18 profes- Dutch occupation Calvinism destroyed the work sors and 300 student^ 1 dormitory for young girls they had accomplished. On 4 April, 1808, two attending the public schools, and 1 orphan ayslum. secular priests retiuned to the mission, and in 1859 The government hospital, the jail, and all the public the Dutch Jesuits arrived. The territory, which is schools permit the priests to minister in them. A five times as large as Holland, covering an area society 'Tia Union de Misa" is organised among of 116^,196 sq. miles, was formerly a part of the the clergy and the 'federation Catolica" amonic vicariate apostolic of Batavia, from wnich it was the laity; two periodicals. "El Boletin Catolica" separated in 1919. It is separated from the Philip- and "El Precursor," are pid^lished. pines, lying north of it, by the Celebes Sea. Besides

^ _ the mission station of Macassar, which has 506 Oefalft, DioGBSB of (Cephaltjdensib; cf. C. E., Catholics, mostly Eim)peans, the chief center is the ni-476b), in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. Rt. Rev. mission of Minahassa, which in 1920 was served by Anselmo Evangelista Sansoni, bom in Terranova- 6 Jesuit Fathers. 60 native catechists, 31 Sisters of Bracciolini, 1859, entered the Order of Friars Minor, Bois-le-Duc, 3 churches and stations, 36 chapels (2 and was appointed to this see 11 November, 1907. of which belong to the Sisters), 34 Catholic schools He died 18 June, 1921, and up to this time (1922) with 57 teachers and 1138 Catholic pupils and 631 no successor has been appomted. This diocese is non-Catholic pupils, 6 schoob conducted by Sisters one of the richest in Italy, receiving an annual with 12 religious and 5 lay teachers, with 176 Cath- revenue of 139,284 lire from rents and royalties, olic and 315 non-Catholic pupils, 1 normal school In 1920 it had a Catholic population of 160,320, 22 for teachers and catechists at Wolsan with 50 pupils,

Sarishes, 301 secular priests, 50 seminarians, 90 i Catholic periodical, "Geredja Katolite," and a isters, and 265 churches or chapels. number of pamphlets on apologetics. Minahassa

Otiebss, one of the four great Sunda Islands in <^^^^ a total population of 742,026, of whom 10,763 the Dutch East Indies between Borneo on the west «[re native Catholics and 10 Asiatic Catholics, and the Moluccas on the east, extending from According to the 1918 census these islands corn- latitude V 45' North to 6* 45' South, and from P"f?^?„ ^^^^^ P?P"^*iL°2.^^t 3,131,984, of whom longitude 118' 45' to 125' 17' East. It has an area 3.061,758 are natives, 42,223 Europeans^ and 28,003 of 72,070 sq. miles, and consists of four great penin- Asiatics, mostly Chinese and Arabs. This mi«ion sulas stretching east and south, and separated by ^ entrusted to the Holland Province of the Mis- three gulfs of Tomini or Gorontolo, Tolo or gojaries of the Sacred Heart of taondun The Tomaiki, and Boni. Though completely in the ?"1 ^^^ present prefect apostohc is Rev. Gerard torrid zone, the maritime tropical climate is health- Vesters, appointed m January, 1920, and embarked ful. the temperature ranginc generally between 77' ^°' Brmdisi 23 June following, and 80', the extremes being about 90* and Oelebret (cf. C. E., III-477a).— A strange priest 70'. Vegetation is remarkably rich, the most im- should be allowed to say Mass in a church on

^own, the bamboo and rattan palm are common the Sacred Congregation for the Eastern Church

m the woods and among the larger trees are sandal- if he belong to an Oriental Rite, unless it is cer-

wood, ebony, sapan, and teak. The products of tain that he has committed an offense that deprives

the forest supply more than half the total exports, him of the right to say Mass. If he has not got

Gold, copper, tin, and iron are found on the island, his letters, he may be admitted if his moral standing

The native population is of Malayan stock: the is well known to the rector of the church; should

three most iinportant peoples are the Bugis, the he be unknown to the rector he may be allowed to

Macassars, and the Mandars. Though nominallv say Mass once or twice, provided he is dressed as

Mohammedan their religion is largely mingled with a cleric, receives no compensation at all from the