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COSNSUBES 173 OESENA

an ceases as soon as one is excused or absolved was reserved; but he must impose on the penitent, from the censure, with one exception: accusing a under penalty of re-incurring the same censure, the priest to his superiors on a false charge of solicita- obligation of having recourse within a month, at tion is a sin reserved to the Holy See independently least by letter and by confessor, if this be possible of the censure now attached to it. The reservation without grave inconvenience (the culplit'a name, of of a censure in a particular territory ceases when course, being suppressed) to the Sacred Penitentiary the offender is outside of that territory evfen if he or a bishop or other superior having the requisite has left in order to obtain absolution; but a cen- faculties, and of carrying out his instructions. The sure ad homine if reserved is reserved everywhere, penitent, however, after receiving absolution in this If a confessor who does not know of the reserva- manner and submitting his case to the superior in tion absolves a penitent from the censure and sin, the manner just descr&ed, may go to another con- the censure is validly absolved, provided it is not feasor who has the requisite faculties and receive ab komine or one very specially reserved to the absolution from him, after confessing to him at Holy See. least the sin to which the censure was annexed If several censures have been incurred, the culprit when he has been thus absolved the confessor must may be absolved from one and not from the others, impose on him the usual injunctions (such for in- In asking for absolution all the cases of censures stance as to repair the injuiy done or scandal given, should be mentioned, otherwise only the case men- or to remove the occasion of the sin). As result tioned is absolved; however, if only a particular of this, his case being now closed, he may disregard absolution has been asked and the absolution given any instructions he may receive later from the was general, the censures omitted in good faith are superior to whom he first submitted the case. If remitted provided they are not very specially re- in an extraordinary case, except when the censure served to ^e Holy See. In the extra-sacramental has been incurred from the crime of solicitation, fonmi no particular formula is necessary in absolv- this recourse to a competent authority is morally ing from censtires, but in case of excommunication impossible, the confessor may, after imposing the it is better to use the formula given in the ritual usual obligations, absolve the penitent without (can. 2250). Absolution from a censure in the ex- obliging him to have recourse to the higher authori- temal forum is valid also for the internal: if a ties, and impose on him a fitting penance and person has been absolved in the internal fonun, satisfaction for the censure which are to be per- ne may act as if he had been absolved in the ex- formed within a reasonable time under penalty of temal, provided there is no scandal ; but unless the re-incurring the censure. ^^ , ^ nbeolutipn is proved or at leart legitimately pre- „£|^„'!S>;V«=2*B';c*'>SS"2^te}L[r'7VSf cK sumed m the external forum, the supenor of th^t i)^ cinturit (Turin. 191«). forum to whom the culprit owes obedience m&y con- sider the censure in force until absolution m the Oervia, Diocese of (C^ervibnsis; cf. C. E., external forum has been i^ven. When a person is III--545b), in the province of Ravenna, Italy, in danger of death any pnest can absolve him from suffragan of Ravenna. The present incumbent all censures; but if the censure was ab homine or (1(K22) is Rt. Rev. Pasquale Morganti, b. at Lesmo was very specially reserved to the Holy See, the 13 January, 1853, appointed Bishop of Bobbio 9 culprit on recovering is obliged, imder penalty of June, 19^ promoted to the archdiocese of Ravenna re-mcurring the censiu*e, to have recourse to him 14 November, 1904, and named also Bishop of who imposed it, if it be a censure ab homine, or Cervia 7 January, 1909, succeeding Rt. Rev. to the Sacred Penitentiary or the bishop or other Frederico Foschi, d. 7 October, 1908. He is as- authorized person, within a month at least by letter sisted by a coadjutor, Rt. Rev. Antonio Lega, or by his confessor if that can be done without titular Bishop of Attalia, who has right of suc- grave inconvenience, and to obey their order, if cession.

the censmre was a jure. When there is no danger During the World War all the priests of this

of death absolution can be given: (a) from un- diocese served at home by lending aid to the

reserved censures by any confessor in confession; families of the soldiers, securing news of the scat-

or extra-«acramentally by anyone possessing juris- tered men or those fallen in the field, and by giving

diction in the external forum over the culprit; shelter to the refugees from invaded countries; in

(b) from censures ab homine, by him who inflicted the army many filled positions in the ranks, or as

the censure, or who passed sentence, or by his law- military chaplains.

ful superior, successor, or delegate, and this even if The most important development in the diocese

the pulprit should have acquired a domicile or quasi- in recent years was the erection of four infant

domicile elsewhere; (c) from reserved censure o asylums, conducted by the Sisters. According to

fttre, by him who created the censure or to whom it present statistics the diocese now comprises 13

18 reserved, or by their successors or lawful superiors parishes, 26 churches, 35 secular priests, 30 Sisters,

or delegates. Consequently if the censure is reserved l seminary, 1 seminarian, 20 communal schools with

permit the

^.^„ , .. .w «, . — . .^« «^ «..». -..^.^ ^^^, v«*- priests to minister in them, and all the communal

Holy See can absolve and so may those who have schools are supported by the Government. An

obtained from it general power of absolving, if the association is formed among the clergy for deceased

censure^ is simply reserved, or who have special priests, and the "Giunta Diocesana" among the

power, if the censure is reserved specially, or very laity. special power if the censure is reserved very

specially. Oesena, Diocese of (C^gsenatensis; cf. C. E..,

In more urgent cases when censures Zd^(Bsen£en£MB III-646d), in the province of Forli, Central Italy,

cannot be observed exteriorly without danger of suffragan of Ravenna. This see was filled by Rt.

grave scandal or loss of good name, or if it would Rev. Giovanni Cazzani from & August, 1904, until

be hard on the penitent to remain in the state of his transfer to the diocese of Cremona, 19 Decem-

sin until the authority to absolve could be obtained ber, 1914. The present incumbent, Rt. Rev. Fabio

any confessor may absolve a person in the tribunal Berdini, bom in San Elpidio 1865, was appointed

of confession from any censure no matter how it to succeed him 4 June, 1915. The latest statistic^