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of this diocese, 1920, credit it with 66,700 Catholics, Rev. Emilio Lisson, now Archbishop of Lima, filled

59 parishes, 131 secular and 40 regular clergy, 31 this see from 16 March, 1909, until his promotion

seminarians,^ Brothers, 90 Sisters, and 99 churches 25 Februaxy, 1918. The see was left vacant for

or chapels. more than three years, until the appointment of

/i«ri<^M 1^ n T? TTT (u«y«\ -« ;«i««ri x^ ♦!!« ^ successor, the present incumbent, Rt. Rev.

Oeylon (cf. C. E., ni-n547c), an island m the nnfavin nr*;« Arr/lfo Soi^;o« or.U.>i«*^ «>i

^^ - o J ■' , — . , :r ". — ,~ — . w>,«s/u. in ly^ tnese were a

members, and a legislative council of twenty^ne ^^ies, comprising 35 parishes, members. The executive coimcil mcludes the officer » *- o *-

commanding the troops, the colonial secretary, Ohaco, Vicabiatb Apostolic ot (db Chaoo), in

the attorney-general, the controller of revenue, the Bolivia, South America, was erected 22 May, 1919.

colonial treasurer, the government agent of the It is bounded on the east by the frontiers of

Western Province, and one member nominated by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the south by those of

the governor. The legislative council includes the Paraguay and Argentina. Contrary to the usual

executive council, four other office holders, and ruling, which places a vicariate apostolic in charge

ten unofficial members (six nominated by the gov- o^ the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical

emor and four elected) representing different races Affairs, the decree of erection placed Chaco under

and classes in the colony. It is proposed to in- the Congregation of Propaganda, and entrusted it

crease the membership of the legislative coimcil to to the Friars Minor. The official residence is at

thirty-seven. Santa Rosa di Cuevo Taraija, Granchaco. The first

The estimated population of Ceylon in 1919 and and present (1922) vicar apostolic is Rt. Rev.

census returns for 1911 were as follows, distributed Ippolito Ulivelli, bom in Cfastelfiorentino, Italy,

according to races: Europeans, 7,349 (8,524); 1879, appointed vicar 1 August, 1919, and titular

Burghers, 29,336 (26,673); Singalese, 2,989,380 Bishop of Orthosias 13 August of the same year.

(2,715,686); Tamils, 1,424,649 (1,060,167); Moors, No statistics are published for this vicariate. 276,631 (267,054); Malays, 14,105 (12,992); Ved- n,Mn«. «,„. tuto^^ r. /r.

dahs and others, 16,146 (19,271): making a total ,^"^^1?^^?l•^^'i;f^; ^^^J^^'^^^Y^^^^^

of 4,757,596 estimated in 1919, and 4,110,367 accord- g- ^- ^^ ni-566b), m the department of Marne.

ing to the 1911 census. ^/*5?«'^«^^* V^t ?^'°^q Upon the promotion

Education is under the Department of Public <^f ^V ^^'^^^^^^ ^!'?' appointed to this

Instruction. In 1919 government schools numbered «^ ", ^J^^' i^^' ^® present incumbent, Rt. Rev.

884, with an attendance of 130,389; aided schools Joseph-Mane Tie® er, was appomted to sue

numbered 1,855 with 207,676 pupils; unaided schools xi^T^^^' ^?i^-. ^^^ ?oif Fert^-Beauhamais,

1,363 with 28,649 children. English and Anglo- 18^7, he was ordained in 1880, and has published

vernacular schools numbered 265, with an attend- » number of books. . ^, . .. «r ,j

ance of 46,888. There were 84 industrial schools. This temtory figured prommeirtly in the Worid

ReUgious statistics for 1919 give: 2,866,560 Budd- ]^?i"' *?^ ^mo^^® u- u l^^aviest fighting. On

hists, 1,087,063 Hindus; 328,613 Mohammedans, «<^ctober, 1918, its bishop wm made a che^^^^^

474,060 Christians. Estimates for the distribution ^^ ^^^ Lef^S °V?°i?P/ • ^ M. Poincar6 m the

of the Christian population are as foUows: Cath- Pr^nce of Marshal P6tain and Generals Maistre

olics, 366,327; Anglicans, 14,733; Presbyterians, and Gouraud. Of the pnests and seminanans 114

8,500; Wesleyan Methodists, 29,680; Baptists, y^^^ mobilized, and of this number 4 priests and

28321; Congregationalists, 11,099. 7 semmanans gave up theu- hves, 1 tos decorated

Ecclesiastically Ceylon comprises the Archdiocese ^.*» P® ^^^"^ dhonneur, 3 with the m^(fattte

of Colombo and suffragan sees of GaUe, Jaffna, '^^l^^^ J^P"^ ^Z^ *^® ^^ ^ ^^Wlt Kandy, and Trincomali. Colombo and Jaffna are By ^^^ rtatistics t^dio^se comprises a (?ath. entrusted to the Oblates of Maiy Immaculate, ohc population of 436,310, 25 first class parishes, GaUe and Trincomali to the Society of Jesus, and 312 succursal panshM, and 6 vicanates /onnerly Kandy to the Benedictines of the Congregation of supported by the state. On 13 January, 1914, the St. Sylvester. In Ceylon there are 245 priests, both Chureh of Notre Dame de I'Epme was made a European and native, and religious communities of ni^^or basilica.

the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Sisters of the Ohamberlaiiiy Papalv— The title of chamberlain is Holy Family, Franciscan nuns. Missionaries of given to certain distinguished oflBcials attached to Mary, Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of Charity the private apartments or the person of the p6pe. of Jesus and Mary, and several congregations of As at present constituted, papal chamberlains date native sisters. The present delegate apostolic is from tne sixteenth or seventeenth century, though Mgr. Pietro Pisani (1920), with residence at Banga- the institution goes much further back. They are lore. members of the papal court and of the official papal

General ecclesiastical statistics for 1919 are: family or household. Their numerous duties and churehes and chapels, 673; schools, 736, with 67,573 privileges are laid down in their letters of appoint- pupils' seminaries, 6, with 160 students (in the ment. Papal chamberlains are divided into the central or "Leonianum" Seminary at Kandy there following classes: (a) privy chamberlains parted- are 81); orphan asylums, 18, with about 1,000 panii, that is, active— laymen and clerics; (b) privy orphans; 9 European secular priests, 21 native chamberlains supernumerary— clerics only; (c) priests, and 225 religious (Oblates, Jesuits, Bene- privy chamberlains of sword and cape partecipanti dictines); and about 650 sisters in the various edu- — lasrmen only; (d) privy chamberlains of sword cational and charitable institutions. and cape, who may be (1) di numero or (2) super-

o/^i^t^±i^ ^t^S^aA'o^m^^l ^^TL^;;iiKcStSS^^^^^^^

A„J?,i ^Ratification was introduced at Rome, 9 lains of honor 6xira ur6em-clerics oiy; (g) cham-

Augusi, ivio. beriains of honor of the sword and cape, who are

Ohachapoyas, Diocbbb op (db Chachapotas; cf. either (1) di numero or (2) supernumerary— lay-

C. E., III-551b), in Peru, suffragan of Lima. Rt men only.