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continuous faithful attendance at choir in the same has not provided otherwise; if these should be

church or at least in the same diocese a prebendary similarly impeded the cathedrsd chapter appoints its

may ask the Holy See for an indult jubilationis; vicar to act with the powers of a vicar capitular.

if it be granted he can receive both the fruits and ^°^^J^' ^^^ ^^-^J Vermbesch-Crbumn, SpU. ;wr.

the distributions, even those restricted to digni- ^^'* ^*'**'

taries actually present in choir, unless the express Oharcas, Archdiocese op. See La Plata.

will of the foimders or donors, or the statutes or

customs of the church in question forbid it. Charity (cf. C. E., III-604d), Congbbgation op

When the cathedral or collegiate church is also thb Brothers op. — ^At present the Brothers con- a parish church the general regulations governing duct numerous schools and institutions in Belgium, the relations of the chapter and the panshi priest They also have three houses in Exigland, one in are as follows: It is the right or duty of the parish Ireland, three in Holland, and two in the Beleian priest: (a) to offer Mass for the parishioners, to Congo. In Canada they have six houses and in preach to and catechize his flock; (o) to keep the Boston, Mass., one flourishing institution. A census parochial registers and make official abstracts from taken of the congregation in 1920 showed that, them; (c) to perform the parochial duties that are despite the ravages wrought in the ranks by the resented to parish priests, such as baptizing World War, it numbered 1,100 brothers. These solemnly, givine commimion to the dying, blessing were divided among 50 communities, which i^el- marriages, holding funeral services, the chapter tered and provided tor 7,000 insane men, with some having the right of holding such services only in hundreds of men rendered helpless and dependent case of funerals of dignitaries, canons (including by age and senility, 13,000 orpnan, deaf and dumb, honorary canons) or beneficiaries; (d) to perform blind, and feeble-minded bo}p. At the Montreal other customary services not strictly parochial, pro- Reformatory there are 500 boys under the care of vided they do not interfere with the choir service 36 brothers, the St. Benedict-Joseph Labre Insane or are not performed by the chapter; (e) to collect Asylum near Montreal has 120 patients, the Mount alms for the parish; to receive, administer, and St. Bernard's College and Scientific school at Sorel, distribute offenngs, according to the wishes of the P. Q., has 250 students taught by 16 brothers, the donors. On the other hand, the chapter: (a) takes Sacred Heart Academy, at Sorel, has 600 pupils care of the Blessed Sacrament, but the parish priest taught by 20 brothers. In Drummondville, P. Q., must have a second key to the tabernacle; (b) sees the brothers teach all the boys of the district, that the parish priest observes the liturgical regula- They also teach all the boys of the St. Guillaume tions while oflaciating in the capitular church; dlJpton district. In Boston, Mass., they conduct (c) takes care of the church, administering its the house of the Angel Guardian, a home and property and pious bequests. Neither party must school for orphan, half-orphan, and destitute boys, interfere in the other's duties: if a dispute arise with an industrial department attached to it, where it must be referred to the local ordinary; the the boys, after passing through the grades, are chapter, moreover, is bound in charity to assist the taught useful trades, pastor in his parochial work, especially if he lacks

assistants, in accordance with the arrangements of Charity, Sisters op (cf. C.E., in-605b).— The the local ordinary. various sisterhoods included imder this general title

There must be a canon theologian, and if pos- &re treated of below under their respective names. eible a canon penitentiary in every cathedral Sisters op Charity op St. Vincent db Paul, with church, and similar appointments 'nay be made for mother-house in Paris, are imder the jurisdiction of collegiate churches also. The canon penitentiary the Superior General of the Congregation of the should preferably be a doctor of theology or canon Mission. Prominent among these successors of St. law, and at least thirty years of age ; he must not Vincent are John Baptist Etienne, whose generalate at the same time hold any other office in the dio- ended in 1874, and Antoine Fiat, who resigned at cese entailing jurisdiction in the external forum; the age of eighty-two years (1914) and died in he has by law ordinary power, which, however, 1915. The present Superior General is Francois he cannot delegate, of absolving strangers in the Verdier, -elected 30 September, 1919, succeeding diocese and diocesan subjects outeide of the diocese Emile Villette. The Mother Genersd is elected from sins and from censures reserved to the bishop; every three years and can be re-elected only once. he must be ready to hear confessions in the She alone bears the title of Mother; the Superioress capitular church at whatever time the bishop con- of each house is addressed simply as Sister. The sioers convenient for the people, and also during community is divided into over thirty provinces Divine service; he must not hold the office of vicar- outside France, in which a Director represents the general, and is exempt from officiating as sub-deacon Superior General and a Sister Provincial the Mother or deacon at the cnapter services. If he neglects General; but all matters of importance are referred his duty he may be warned by the bishop and to the Council of the Community at the mother- punishea by a curtailment of his revenue; if he house in Paris,

does not amend within a year after being warned, A candidate for admission to the congregation he may be suspended, and if he remains recalcitrant spends three months in one^ of the Sisters' houses for six months longer he may be deprived of his before she enters the novitiate or seminary, and benefice. after live years she takes her vows, which are re-

The cathedral chapter is to be invited to plenary newed every year. The novices from Germany, and provincial councils; it sends two deputies as Austria, North and South America, and China do representatives, but they have only a consultive not go to the mother-house for their novitiate, but ▼ote. When a see is vacant the chapter must, if are trained in local seminaries. Those from Eng- necessary, appoint an oeconomus and notify the land and Italy make the first part of their seminary Hely See as soon as possible about the death of in their own countries, but in times of peace go the bishop; the new selected vicar capitular must to the mother-house to receive the habit, similarly announce his own election. U the bishop The English Province, erected in 1885, includes is not dead, but is prevented entirely from com- all the houses of Great Britain and Ireland. In municating with his subjects, his place is taken by Ireland there are 16 houses, 7 of which are in Dub- the vicar general or other delegate, if the Holy See lin ; there are 15 houses in London and 47 in other