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OMAMTY 181 OfiABtTY

the Holy See, in 114, perpetual vows for the sis- tember, 1845, chevalier of the Order of the Crown, terhood. The installatiqa of provincial govern- elected superior 2 September, 1899, and re-elected ment and the revision of the constitutions, ren- tliree times consecutively in 1905, 1911, and 1919, dered necessary by the chajige, were ably conducted celebrated the golden jubilee of her profession in under her supervision. The present superior gen- '1919, and died 17 November, 1920. eral is Kf other Mary Isabella Kane. Other notable members recently deceased are:

Since its foundation in 1833, 2,000 young women Mother Mary of the Trinity (Teresa Lockens), have entered the congregation. At present there superior at Lahore (Punjab), where she foimded are 1,400 members, conducting 95 schools which the school for Parsees, d. 1908; Mother Corine include 1 college, 8 academies, 13 high schools, and (Margaret Frederix), superior at St. Trudon 73 parochial schools;, with a total enrollment of (Congo) where she took care of the victims of 33^220 pupils. These schools are located in Iowa, the sleeping sickness, contracted their disease, and Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, died at the mother-house in 1910; Sister Ancina South Dakota, Colorado, California, Montana, (Elizabeth Dicteren), contracted the sleeping sick- Oregon, Washington. ness at St. Trudon, d. at St. Trend, Belgium, 1910;

Sisters of Chabitt of the Immaculatb Con- Mother Amalia (Van der Stegen), one of the first


conform to the new code of Canon Law. The (De Blauwe), author of an account of her trips affairs of the community are administered by a to India and Ceylon (edited 1901 and 1905), began mother eeneral with four assistants, a general secre- the review "Caritas," d. 1914; Sister Fmnbarr tary, and a general treasurer. The first mother gen- (Hammond), with Senior Oxford certificate and eralundertherevisedConstitTitionswas Rev. Mother the degree of LL.A. St. Andrew's, head-mistress of Mary Thomas, who was succeeded by Rev. Mother the boardine school of Claremont, d. 1915 of an Mary Alphonsus, the present mother general. Under epidemic which broke out among the Belgian their wise guidance the charitable and educational refugees to whom she ministered; Mother Idonie works of the community have been greatly ex- (M. Ottevaere), superior of the institute for abnor- tended. Hospitals have been opened in the west mal children of Lokeren, consecrated twenty-seven at Prince Albert, Sask., and in St. John, N. B. A years to the education of mentally deficient chil- home for destitute infants is another great charity dren, d. 1917; Mother Josepha (Clara Hellebaut), undertaken by the Sisters. A modem boarding- one of the ten first missionaries for the Congo, school and academy has recently been opened, and decorated chevalier of the Order of Leopold for in 1921 the Sisters opened in Regina, Sask., a Girls' her services at the hospital of Kinkanda, founded Guild (called Rosary Hall) for the accommodation for Belgians working at the first railway, returned of yoimg women living away from home and earn- to Belgium 1905, d. 1917; Sister Gamaliel (Lucie ing their own livelih^sd. Thus the 18 houses of Delaye), for twenty-five years teacher of the deaf the Institute number over 200 Sisters who care and dumb at the Royal Institute of the Rampart for the poor, the sick, and infirm from infancy des Moines, Brussels, d. 1917; Mother Mary of to old age. The commimity is engaged in all the Cross (Clemantine van Driessche), former the educational activities of the times from the superior general, d. 1918; Mother Colette (Hor- primaiy, intermediate, through the high school tense Grosse), superior of St. Trend, which shel- g^des. Their pupils pass with nonors the matricula- tered many refugees durins the war, the sick and tion. State, and all departmental examinations. unfortunate, d. 1918; Mother Pacifique (Caroline

SiSTHis OF Chabitt of the Incarnate Word. Janssens), successively superior at Mons, Eecloo, See Ingarnatb Word, Sibtbbs of Charftt of the. Courtrai, and Beirlegem, d. at Lockeren 1919;

Sisters of Charptt of Jesus and Mart (cf. C. Mother Felicity (Stephanie Van Durme), superior S., ni-609c). — ^This congregation with mother- at St. Genois near Courtrai, d. at the civil hospital house at Ghent, is administered by a superior gen- of Manseron where she was obliged to seek refuge eral, a secular priest nominated by tne BiSiop a few days before the armistice. 6 November, 1918; of Ghent, and a mother general, elected for six Sister Flore (Marie Bauwens), professor at the years from among the members of the congrega- Institute of Notre Dame aux Epines at Eecloo, tion. The superiors general are assisted by their author of a history of Notre Dame aux Epines council, residing at the mother-house. Each affilia- and of the institute (edited 1921), d. 1918; Sister tion is administered by a superior nominated for Frederique (M. Verstraeten), professor of religion three years by the general superiors. All the and philosophy at the Institute of Notre Dame affiliations depend on the mother-Jiouse. The con- aux Epines, d. 1919; Sister Seraphine (Am61ie fltitutions are taken from the Rules of St. Bernard Janssens), for thirty-three years teacher of deaf and St. Vincent de Paul, to suit the mixed life and dumb children at the mother-house, decorated of contemplation and active works. The work in 1912 with the first class Civil Cross, d. 1918; of revision of the constitutions will be sent to Mother Rosalie (M. Van Goethem), foundress of Rome. The new Canon Law has been put into the house at Tottington, England, superior at execution since 1920. Toumai, died at Ghent where she had retired dur-

The present superior general is Canon Eug^e ine the war. van Rechem, b. at Beveren-Audenarde in April, At present (1921) the congregation numbers 1,600 1858, appointed superior general, 1 November, 1903, members with 45 foundations, of which 30 are in created titular Bishop of Carpasia, 26 March, 1014, Belgium, 1 in Holland, 1 in England, 6 in Belgian consecrated auxiliary Bishop of Ghent 14 May, Congo, 4 in India, and 3 in (Jeylon. Under the 1914, chevalier of the Order of Leopold. The care of the Sisters there are in Europe: 1 normal mother general is Mother Bemardette (Clemence school, 9 boarding schools, 15 day schools, 18 Van Reeth), b. at Antwerp, 1 November, 1853, for- primary schools, 10 professional schools, 1 institute merly Superior of Mons, elected general superior for the blind, 3 institutes for the deaf and dumb, 11 Decemoer, 1920, entitled chevalier of the Order 4 institutes for mentally deficient children, 1 insti- of Leopold in 1921. She succeeded Mother Ghis- tute for the disabled, 2 institutes for incurables, laine (Rosalie SpiUemackers), b. at Boom in Sep- 1 asylum for the abandoned, 1 house of preserva-