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The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in 1918 con- 1878; under the Missionaries of Scheutveld; resi- sisted of a monastery, a hermitage, a nunnery, 5 dence, Liang-chou; vicar apostolic, Geoffrey Frede- convents, and 32 churches, with 5,587 baptized rix, titular Bishop of Tnagaste. (2) Southern Chinese adherents. The bishop is resident at Kan-su (Prefecture Apostolic), erected 1905; under Peking. the Missionaries of Scheutveld; residence, Ts'in-

Protestant missions date from 1807 and at various chou; prefect apostolic, Constantin Daems. (3) I-li times no less than 138 societies have had representa- or Kuldja (Mission), erected in 1888; imder the lives in China. According to the World Statistics Missionaries of Scheutveld; residence, Sui-ting; of Christian Missions" in 1916 there were 108 superior of the mission, Joseph Hoogers. (4) North- Protestant missionary societies active in (Hiina, with em Shen-si, erected 1844; under the Franciscans; a total foreign staff of 5,750 and a total native staff residence, Yen-an-fou; vicar apostolic, Celestin of 15,680; 4,082 organized churches and 4,037 other IbafiesyAparicio, titular Bishop of Bagi. (5) South- places where regular services were held; 257,431 em Shennsi, erected 1887; imder the priests from the communicants, 77,925 baptized non-communicant Seminary of Sts. Peter and Paul, Rome; residences, adults and children, 114,525 others under Chris- Ku-lu-pa and Hanchimg-fu; vicar apostolic, Antonio tian instruction; 3,0()3 Sunday schools with 166,054 Capettini, titular Bishop of Evaria. (6) Central teachers and pupils. Attached to Protestant mis- Shen-si, erected 1911 j under the Franciscans; resi- fiions in 1915 were 24 colleges, 120 normal and dence, Si-ngan-fu; vicar apostolic, Eugene Massi, training schools, 29 theological schools, 216 middle titular Bishop of Jaffa. (7) Northern Shan-si, schools, 5,212 elementary schools, and 386 hospitals erected 1844; under the Franciscans; residence, and dispensaries. In 1915 the publications of the Tai-yuan; vicar apostolic, Agapito Augusto Fio- Chinese af^encies of the three Bible societies (British rentini, titular Bishop of Rusaddir. (8) Southern and Foreign, American, and the National Society Shan-si, erected 1890; imder the Franciscans; resi- of Scotland) amounted to 6,301,522 copies of the dence, Lu-ngan* vicar apostolic, Albert Oderic Tim- whole Bible or portions thereof. Of these 2,875,000 mer, titular Bishop of Drusipara. (9) Northern are in Mandarm, ^S5,(X)0 in simple Wen-li, and Shan-tung, erected 1839; under the Franciscans; 98»000 in classical Chinese. residence, Tsi-nan; vicar apostolic, Adalbert

Catholic Missions, — ^By decree of Pope Leo XIII, Schmucker, titular Bishop of Elearchia. (10) Eastern 23 June, 1876, China was divided into five ecclesias- Shan-tung, erected 1894; under the Franciscans; tical regions, which ar^ made up of the following residence, Che-fu; vicar apostolic, Ad6odat Wittner, vicariates apostolic. titular Bishop of Miletus. (11) Southern Shan-

First Region:^In the Chi-li province: (1) South- tung, erected 1885; under the Society of the Divine eastern Chi-li, erected 1856; imder the care of the Word of Steyl; residence, Yen-chou; vicar apostolic, Jesuits; residence, Chang-kia-chwang, in the Prefec- August Henninghaus, titular Bishop of Hypsepa. ture of Hokien; vicar apostolic, Henri L^croart, Third Region. — (1) Eastern Che-kiang, erected titular Bishop of Anchialos. (2) Nofthem Chi-li, 1696; reestablished 1846; under the Lazarists; resi- erected 1856; under the Lazarists; residence, dence, Ning-po- vicar apostolic, Paul-Marie Rey- Peking; vicar apostolic, Stanislas Jarlin, titular naud, titular Bishon of Fussola. (2) Western Bishop of Pharbsetus; coadjutor, Jean de Vienne, Che-kiang, erected 1910; under the Lazarists; resi-* titular Bishop of Abrvtus. (3) Southwestern Chi-li, dence, Hang-chow; vicar apostolic, Paul FaveaUr erected 1856; under the Lazarists; residence, Cheng- titular Bishop of Tamassus. (3) Southern Ho-nan. ting; vicar apostolic, HuA>ert-Frangois Schraven, erected 1882; under the Foreign Missions of Milan; titmar Bishop of Amyclsea. (4) Eastern Chi-li, residence, Nan-yang; vicar apostolic, Flaminius erected 1809; under the Lazarists; residence, Yung- Bellotti, titular Bishop of Sufetula. (4) Western ping; vicar apostolic, Ernest Francis Geurts, titular Ho-nan, erected 1906; under the Congregation of Hisnop of Riunocolura. (5) Central Chi-li, erected St. iVancis Xavier of Parma; residence, Siang- 1910; under the Lazarists; residence, Pao-ting; vicar cheng; vicar apostolic, Lodovico Calza, titular apostolic, Joseph Fabregues, titular Bishop of Alalia. Bishop of Termeasus. (5) Eastern Ho-nan, erected (6) Maritime Chi-li, erected 1912; under the 1916; under the Foreign Missions of Milan; resi- Lazarists; residence, Tien-tsin ; vicar apostolic, Paul dence, Kai-feng-fu; vicar apostolic. Nod Tacconi, Dumond, titular Bishop of Curubis. In the Ho-nan titular Bishop of Aradus. (6) Southern Hu-nan, province: (7) Northern Ho-nan, erected 1869; erected 1856; under the FVanciscans; residence, under the Foreign Missions of Milan- residence, Hen^^-chou; vicar apostolic, Pellegrino Luigi Mon- Wei-hwei: vicar apostolic, Martin Chiolino, titular daim, titular Bishop of Synaus. (7) Northern Bi^op. of Calama. In Manchuria: (8) Southern Hu-nan, erected 1879; under the Augustinians; resi- Manchuria, erected 1838; under the Foreign Mis- dence, Li-chu; vicar apostolic, Angelo Diego y sions.of Paris: residence, Mukden; vicar apostolic, Carbajal, titular Bishop of Caloe. (8) Northwestern Felix-Marie Choulet, titular Bishop of Zela. (9) Hu-pe, erected 1870; under the Franciscans; resi- Northem Manchuria, erected 1898; under the For- dence, Lao-ho-kou; pro-vicar apostolic, Fr. Ermene- eign Missions of Paris: residence, Kirin; vicar apos- gild Ricci. (9) Southwestern Hu-pe, erected 1870; tolic, Pierre-Marie Lalouyer, titular Bishop of under the Franciscans; residence, Ichan^' vicar Rbaphansa; coadjutor, Auguste Ernest Peter Gas- apostolic, Modestus Everaerts, titular Bi^op of pais, titular Bishop of Canopus. In Mongolia: Tadama. (10) Eastern Hu-pe, erected 1870; under (10) Eastern Mongolia, erected 1883; under the the priests of the Irish Maynooth Mission; resi- Missionaries of - Scheutveld (near Brussels): resi- dences, Wuchang and Hankow; vicar apostolic, dence, Sung-hui-tsoei-tze ; vicar apostolic, Conrad Gratien Gennaro, titular Bi^op of Jericho. (11) Abels, titular Bishop of Lagania. (11) Central Kiang-nan or Nanking, erected 1660; reestablished Mongolia, erected 1883; imder the Missionaries of 1856; imder the Jesuits; residence, Shanghai; vicar Scheutveld; residence, Si-wan-tze; vicar apostolic, apostolic. Prosper Paris, titular Bishop of Silandus. Jerome Van Aertselaer, titular Bishop of Zarai. (12) Kiu-kiang (formerly Northern KiangHsi), (12) Southwestern Mongolia, erected 1883; under erected 1696; reestablished 1838; under the Lazar- tfae Missionaries of Scheutveld; residence, Eul-she- ists; residence, Kiu-Kiang; vicar apostolic, Louis we^dng-ti; vicar apostolic, Louis Van Pyck, titular Fatiguet, titular Bishop of Aspendus. (13) Yii- Bishop of Abbir. Kiang, formerly Fu-Chow (formerly Eastern

Second Region^^d) Northern Kan-su, erec^tpd Kiangnsn), erected 1885; imder the Lazarists; resi- IS