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OISTEBdAKS 207 OISTEBOIAKS

SuBBex was founded in 1176. Its abbot and the the generosity of Thomas Weld of Lulworth a Abbot of Boxley were sent to seek King Richard I, small body of monks from the monastery of La when he was imprisoned in Germany on his return Val-Sainte, intended for Canada, found it possible from the Holv Land. Crokesden Abbey in Staf- to establish themselves at Lulworth in Dorsetshire, fordshire was founded in 1178. The Abbey of Clive For twenty-one years they remained in this new in Somersetshire, founded in 1198, is sometimes settlement, but owing to certain restrictions put claimed as Benedictine, but on the authority of upon them by the government, which they found most chronicles seems to have been Cistercian. In it imiibssible to accept, they left England and re- 1201 Dunkeswell Abbey in Devonshire was founded, turned to Melleray m Brittany, where they suc- Tanner wrongly assigns it to the Premonstratensians. ceeded in finally establishing themselves. From BeauUeu Abbey in the New Forest, Hampshire, this French monasteiy the present Mt. Melleray was founded from Citeaux by King John in 1204, in Ireland was established, and from it in 1835 a in satisfaction for his ill-treatment of some Cis- filiation was made at Mt. St. Bernard's, Coalville, tercian abbots, 'Vith whom he was offended and in Leicestershire, which continues to the present whom he caused to be trodden imder his horses." day the monastic life according to the rule of Mendham Abbey in Buckinghamshire, Hilton in Citeaux. Mr. Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle was the Staffordshire, Grace-Dieu in Monmouthshire, and generous donor who thus hdped to revive the Cis- Nelley in Hampshire arose respectively in 1212, tercian Order in England. He was descended from 1219, 1226, and 1238. Hayles Abbey in Gloucester- the de Lisles, who were formerly such charitable shire dates from 1246, and Newhau Abbey in beneficiaries to the ancient Abbey of Garendon. Devonshire arose in the following year. Vale-Royal To him as well as to the Elarl of Shrewsbury the Abbey, formerly Demhall, in Cheshire, has a re- monks are indebted for their present abbey, of markable history. Edward, Prince of Wales, son which Augustus Welby Pugin, Esq., was the archi- of Henry III, being in danger of shipwreck during tect. In 1849 Rt. Rev. Bernard Palmer received his return from the Holy Land, vowed in case he the abbatial blessinjg and was the first mitred and his came safe. to land to erect a monastery abbot in England since the Reformation. and endow the same for 100 Cistercian monks. The At the time of the suppression there were 26 monastery was in due course erected at Demhall, houses of Cistercian Nuns m England. Eleven of but afterwards, when Edward became king, that these were situated in Yorkshire, vis., Sinning- place was abandoned and a new monasteiy built thwaite, Eshalt, Hampole, Swine, Hoton, Basedale, at Vale-Royal, the first stone of the new founds- Nimappleton, Kildeholm, Wickham, Elreton, and tion being laid by the king himself. A relic of Kirklees. Lincolnshire had six, viz. : Greenfield, the true Cross, brought by the king from Pales- Legbum, Nuncoton, Goykwell, Hevening, Stixwold. tine, was given to the monastery. So great Others were at Cokehill and Whiston in Worcester- were the benefactions of the king and queen that shire, at Grace-Dieu in Leicestershire, at Brewood, after their demise the monks used a special Collect Salop, at Marham, Norf olkshire, at Pinley, War- for their welfare, not only at all the Masses, but wickishire, at Sewardesley, Northamptonshire, at also at all the canonical hours. The solemn con- Wintney, Hampdiire, and at Tarent in Dorsetshire, secration of this house was made by the Patriarch All these convents and their inmates shared the of Jerusalem, at which a sentence of greater excom- same fate as the monks. Yet for the last 120 munication was pronounced against anyone who years England has not been without its convents should enter the monastery any other ways than of Cistercian nuns, for there is at Stapehill in by the gate of the same." Edward paid in all for Dorsetshire a Cistercian convent whose early his- the erection of this monastery £32,000 in the money tory is of interest. The original community be- value of that time. Henry III requested all the longed to the Royal Abbey of St. Antoine in Paris, religious houses of England to furnish Vale-Royal During the troubles in France in 1793 the convent with books. The date of foundation was 1274. The was suppressed and the nuns imprisoned. After Countess of Devonshire foimded Buckland Abbey months of imprisonment they were released in in Devonshire in 1278. Rewley Abbey in Oxford- 1794, and feeling they could not promise themselves shire followed in 1281. In 1350 the Abbey of Our security on French soil they retired to Switzerland, Lady of Graces was founded near the Tower of which had a short time previously given shelter to London by Edward III. This was the 708th founds- the exiled monks of La Trappe, at whose head was tion in the annals of the whole order, after which, Dom Augustine Lestrange. Both monks and nuns, until the close of the eighteenth century, there however, were forced to flee before the French seems to have been no new foimdation made in army which was beginning to invade Switserland. England, though there were many in other coim- Accordingly they moved into Austria, and on their tries. journeys met with much hospitality in Austrian

Nevertheless, the religious institutions already monasteries and convents. Through the influence

established, so many in number, so various in char- of Princess Louise de Cond6, who had become a

acter, continued their good work until the upheaval Cistercian nun, the then Tsar of Russia, Paul I,

of the sixteenth century, when between the years offered them a home within his territory, and

1535 and 1540 Henry VIII overthrew the whole thither they went, Dom Augustine still courageously

religious and monastic life of England. It is leading his monks and. Madame de Chabannes, in

reckoned that 8000 religious of all orders, men and religion Sister Mary Augustine, at the head of her

women, not to speak of the dependents of the party of nuns. But owing to the Tsar's alliance

monasteries, were thus expelled from their cloisters, with the French, whose Constituent Assembly had

Leaving aside the religious and spiritual loss to so recently suppressed religious houses, they did

England by the suppression of the monasteries, not long have Russian protection. After many

the loss from a merely humane and economic point arduous and laborious journeys through Russia,

of view was very great, for they exercised great Poland, and I^russia they were able to take ship

hospitality towards the poor, received the sick, for London, where they arrived in 1801. There they

nursing and curing them, and taught poor children, were received with hospitality and remained a short

being also centers of art, science, and literature. time, Mr. Weld and others being their generous

Not until 1794 do we again hear of the Cister- hosts. In 1802 Lord Arundel offered them a resi-

eians as a community in England, when through dence at Stapehill, which they gladly accepted.