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Since then the nuns have led tranquil lives of con- King of Leinster, in either 1148 or 1151. In 1185 templation and penance in their secluded house in the abbot, Albinus Malloy, was made Bishop of East Dorsetshire. There is at present a flourishing Ferns. Shrule Abbey, Co. Lan^ord, was founded community of 42 members. about 1150 by the family of OTerrall. Luslought

Ibeland. — The early religious history of Ireland Abbey, Co. Tipperary, founded in 1151, is attributed is, very largely, the history of Irish monasticism, to Donald O'Brien, Kin^ of Limerick. It seems, for the early Irish Church was, in great part, a however, that the original foundation was on the monastic church. It is not clear that anjr other banks of the Suir, whence it was called de Surio, nation, in so short a time after its conversion, and in 1185, in Donald's time, transferred to Inis- ezhibited so remarkable a picture of monastic life, lought. Abbot Congan of this monastery is sup- whether in its eremitical or cenobitical aspect, as posed to have supplied St. Bernard with the matter the Irish nation. In the course of time Irish for his famous Life of St. Malachy." monasticism became a distinct and well-defined Newry Abbey, Co. Down, was foimded, according system, with rather austere tendencies, and exer- to some in 1144, according to others in 1153. Both cised a very great influence, both in the sanctifica- St. Malachy and Murtogh McLochlain, King of tion of the Irish people at home and in the con- All Ireland, are claimed as founders. Abbot Finn version of heathen nations abroad. Its great was Bishop of Kildare. Odomey or Kyrie Eleison number of saintly men and women, so thorough a Abbey, Co. Kerry, was founded in 1154 by the Fitz- novitiate in religion and sanctity were none tdo maurice family. Here St. Christian, the first Cis- great, in view of the subsequent trials and persecu- tercian abbot in Ireland, died in 1186. In 1288 tions for the faith, to which the nation was sub- Abbot Nicholas became Bishop of Ardfert. Fermoy jected for over ten centuries. The Danish wars Abbey, Co. Cork, was founded supposedly by the were not mere expeditions of plunder, they were Roche family, who seem, however, to have been wars of religious persecution as well. Their pagan behefactors rather than foimders. Patricius, the fury spared neither church nor cloister, and monastic prior, became Bishop of Cloyne in 1226. Maure seats of learning were plundered and destroyed. Abbey, Co. Cork, was founded in 1172 by Dermot The loss of faith in England, through the so-called McCormac McCarthy, King of Desmond. Astrath Reformation in the sixteenth century, was followed or Assaroe Abbey, Co. Donegal, dates from 1178. by a methodic and calculated effort to rob the Roderick O'Cananan, Lord of Tyrconnel, and Insh nation of that same gift. But neither Eng- Flaherty, Lord of Kinel-Connell, are claimed as lish persecutor nor Danish invader could distuit> founders. Holy Cross Abbey, Co. Tipperary, was the constancy, nor shake the hearts, nor unsettle founded in 1180 by Donald Mor O'Brien, King of the faith of the Irish." And this faith they carried Limerick. The abbot of this house was styled Earl abroad, seeking the conversion of other nations, of Holy Cross, and acted as vicar general of the Sts. Columbanus, Kilian, Virgilius, and Gall were Cistercian Order in Ireland. Considerable remains men of heroic sanctity, apostles of the Gospel, of this abbey are still to be seen, and the archi- benefactors to Europe, and the glory of Ireland, tecture is said to have been rei^rkably fine. The According to a Belgian writer of the seventeenth abbey takes it name from the relic of the true century 46 Irish saints were propagators of the Cross, formerly preserved with great veneration Gospel in Belgium alone. Reputed for four cen- there, but now in the Ursuline convent at Black- turies as the Island of Scholars, as well of Saints, rock, Cork. Holy Cross enjoyed great pre-eminence foreign students went to Ireland as to "a literary among the Cistercian houses, emporiuin." But persecutions and ravages of war Middleton Abbey, Co. Cork, had as founders in roboed the nation of her ancient glory, and this 1180 either the Fitzgerald or the Barry family. St. Malachy endeavored in some degree to restore Jerpoint Abbey, Co. Kilkenny, was foimded in 1180 when he sought the co-operation of St. Bernard in by Donald O'Donoghue, King of Ossory. Felix establishing the Cistercians in Ireland. O'Dulany was the first abbot, afterwards Bishop of

On a journey to Rome St. Malachy left some Ossory, a man famous for sanctity, at whose tomb companions at Citeaux to be instructed in its rules it is related many miracles took place. The early and discipline. When sufficiently trained thev were foundation of St. Canice's Cathedral is attributed commissioned to return to Ireland under the leader- to him. Dunbrody Abbey, Co. Wexford, was ship of St. Christian, afterwards Bishop of Lismore. founded in 1182 by Hervey de Montemarisco, mar- With St. Malac^ and under his guidance they shall of King Henry II and seneschal of Strongbow, founded the first Cistercian monastery at Mellifont, Earl of Pembroke. Strongbow was a great bene- Co. Louth, in 1142. The generous founder of Melli- factor to this monastery, which was one of the font, after St. Malachy, was Donough O'CarroU, largest in Ireland, the church being nearly 200 feet Prince of Uriel. The first abbot was St. Christian, in length. Leix Abbey, Queen's Co., was founded In the course of time there were eight foundations in 1184 by Corcheger O'More. Kilcooly Abbey, made from this abbey. Bective Abbey, Co. Meath, Co. Tipperaiy, was founded in the same year by on the banks of the Boyne, not far from the town Donald O'Brien, King of Thomond. Glandy Abbey, of Trim, was founded by O'Melaphlin, King of supposed to have been in Co. Cork, was founded Meath, probably in 1147. In that same year St. probably in 1185. Little is known about it. Inis- Mary's Abbey, Ehiblin, of Savignian origin and courcy Abbey on Juch Island, Strangford, Lough, supposed to have been founded by the Danes was founded by John de Courcy in 1187. It seems about 048, embraced the rule of the Cistercians, to have been formerly either Benedictine or Boyle Abbey, Co. Roscommon, taking its name Savignian. Monasterevan, Co. Kildare, owes its from the River Boyle, was originally founded at origin to Dermot O'Dempsey, Prince' of Offaly, Grelacdinach and transferred to Boyle in 1161. in 1189. The first abbot became Bishop of Leighlin. Peter O'Morra was the first abbot, and later became Knockmoy Abbey, Co. Galway, was founded by Bishop of Qonfert. Nenay Abbey, Co. Limerick, Cathal Crovderg, King of Connaught, in 1190. He was founded in 1148 by Turlogh O'Brien, King of afterwards became a Cistercian monk. In 1290 Thomond. Cistercian historians state that the Abbot Laurence became Bishop of Kilmacdaugh. abbot and forty monks were put to death by the Leigh or Gray Abbey, on the shore of Strongford satellites of Elizabeth. Battinglass Abbey, Co. Lough, was founded in 1193 by Africa, daughter of Wicklow, owes its origin to Dermont McMurrogh, the King of the Isle of Man, The ruins indicate