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developed at the Congress was The Peaceful King- of which was derived from basalt or trap rock, ship of Our Lord Jesus Christ through the Educational FAauriES.— The libraries of Yale Eucharist." Addresses were delivered each day in University contain about 1,000|000 volumes. In Italian* the official language of the gathering, and 1910 its property and funds amounted to twenty- in English, French, Spanid^, and German. On the five millions of dollars in value, and it expended closing day solemn ceremonies were held in every in that year one and a half million dollars in its diocese of the Catholic world in spiritual conjunc- operations. Upwards of 400 Catholics are numbered tion with those in Rome. Tie twenty-six preceding among its students. The total enrollment in 1920 Congresses were 'held as follows: Lille, 1881; was 3^96, and the faculty numbered 569. The Avignon, September, 1882; Liege, Jime, 1883; Fri- endowment amounts to $24,049,730. Especially bourg, September, 1885; Toulouse, June, 1886; notable was the recent bequest of John Sterling, Paris» July, 1888; Jerusalem, May, 1893; Reims, a New York lawyer amounting from $16,000,000 to July, 1894; Faray-le-Monial, September, 1897; Brus- $20,000,000. A beautiful memorial quadrangle of sels, July, 1898; Lourdes, August, 1907; Angers, dormitories, containing six campuses and covering September, 1900; Namur, September, 1902; An- an entire city square has recently been completed, gouleme, July, 1904; Rome, June, 1905; Tournai, one of the finest groups of buildings of this sort August, 1906; Metz, August, 1907; London, Sep- in the world, the gift of Mrs. Stephen Harkness, tember, 1908; Cologne, August, 1909; Montreal, in memory of her son. Wesleyan University has September, 1910; Madrid, June, 1911; Vienna, about 426 students, and forty-eight professors and September, 1912; Malta, April, 1913; Lourdes, 1914. instructors. The Connecticut Agricultural College The Marian Congress, held in India 13-16 January, has an enrollment of 354 students. The public 1921, was attended by a papal delegate, 24 bishops, schools have a total enrolment of 243380 pupils and 12,000 of the laity. At Paris, 4-11 December, with 5,987 teachers. The total expenditure for the 1921, the first International Democratic Congress, maintenance of these schools for the year 1919 was organized by Marc Sangnier, had for its purpose $11,280,097. For statistics of Catholic schools see the promotion of international peace and was Hartford, Diocese of.

notable for the attendance of delegates from all State laws relative to private and parochial the recently warring nations, who manifested the schools are as follows: attendance of children at most harmonious and fraternal relations with each a school other than a public school shall net be other. The Catholic Bible Congress, in which the regarded as compliance with the laws of the state, leading biblical scholars took part, held its sessions unless the teachers or persons having control of at Cambridge, England, 16-19 July, 1921. such school shall keep a register of attendance in

the form and manner prescribed by the state board

Oonnecticat (cf. C. E., IV-253c). — ^According to of education for the public schools, which register the federal census of 1920 the population of the shall at all times during school hours be open to State of Connecticut was 1,380,631. the inspection of the secretary and agents of the

Wealth and Resources. — Manufacturing had an state board of education; compulsory education early beginning in Connecticut. Iron products law requires that children in private schools be were manufactured in the eighteenth century; nails taught same subjects as in public schools; state were made before 1716; and the cannon for the board mav examine incorporated or endowed sec- Continental troops made to block the chimnel of ondary schools, and shall aprove them if course of the Hudson River to British ships, was manufac- studies and equipment are satisfactory. Bible read- tured in Connecticut. Tinware was made in Berlin ing is neither permitted nor excluded in the public as early as 1770; Connecticut clocks were well schools of state.

known in the eighteenth century. Jn 1732 the Recent History.— The Constitution of 1918 was London hatters complained of the competition of amended to permit an annual or biennial election Connecticut hats in their trade. Brass works were of town selectmen, the use of voting machines, to in operation in Waterbury in 1749; paper mills at allow the lieutenant-governor to exercise the author- Norwich in 1768; in Hartford in 1776. In 1900 ity of the governor in case of the death or disability Connecticut led all the states in the manufacture of the latter, and to provide for the adjournment of ammunition, bells, brass, and copper. According of the legislature, sine die, not later than the first to the census of manufactures of 1919, there were Wednesday after the first Monday in June, in Connecticut 4,104 manufacturing establishments. During the World War, Connecticut was given with an aggregate capital amounting to $620,194,000, over to war work. Munition factories, metal work- employing 25,112 salaried officials, and on the aver- ing concerns in Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport aj^e of 226,264 wage earners. The cost of raw mate- and Naugatuck Valley and textile manufactures rial used annually was $228,511,000, and the value brought an increase of population to the state, of the output was $545,472,000. Connecticut was the first state in preparation for

The latest agricultural census shows a decrease in war, in the formation of its Home Guard and its the number of farms from 26,815 in 1910, to 22,655 Council of Defense, and was the first to have in 1920. Of the total land area of the state, 3,084,800 soldiers sent abroad.

acres, 1,898,980 are in farms and of this, 701,086 Lbgiblativb Changes.— In 1913 the Sunday law acres are improved land. In 1920 the value of all was slightly relaxed to permit free concerts and farm property was $226,991,617; of live stock, $23,- athletic sports in public parks with the consent 472,693. The crops in 1919 brought a total value of the authorities, if no prizes were to be offered, of $44,492,385, of which $4,457,809 came from cereals, The exemption of charitable bequests from a suo- $13,711,567 from hay and forage. $7,218,194 from cession tax was repealed in 1917. In the same year vegetables, and $15,189,551 from tobacco. The dairy a law was passed requiring the approval of the products brought $14,923,971. State Board of Charities before support for different

In 1919, Connecticut ranked forty-fourth of all religious and charitable causes could be solicited, the states in the Union in the total number of Other legislative measures included the creation persons engaged in the mining and quarrying indus- of a state Civil Service Commission, Workmen's tries and m the average number of wage earners Compensation Act, registration of voters, tax ex- employed. The totai value of products from all emption of bonds of state, counties, and munici- mines and quarries in 1919 was $1,649,003, 76.6% palities, a teachers' retirement Act, old age pension