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C0NSTJI.T0R8 228 CONVENTUALS

in 1914, was resumed in 1018. Recent pro^press has bishop without consultation, but if during their

proved the efficacy of native works in schismatical three-year period of office one of them dies, the countries, if they are provided with sufficient means bishop is to consult the others concerning his sub- and with sealous missionaries. During the last stitute, — ^if this happen during an episcopal vacancy

three years the number of the Greek missionaries the vicar capitular with the consent of the other

has been increased from eight to thirteen; the consultors appoints the substitute, who must be

work has been provided with proper buildings for confirmed by the new bidiop if he is to remain in

bishop's residence, presbytery, seminary, convent, office,

and schools frequented by hundreds of Schismatic Codex jur, can., 423-28.

children to whom is given an entirely Catholic n^^^^i*^,. « mu i • xu

education. ConveraionI have averaged about one Consultors, PAROOTiAL.--The rules govemuw the

hundred a year and there is every reason to believe appomtment, number, duties and removal of

that this average is going to be much higher in the Parochial consultors are the same as those relating

near future, if only fliis important work u provided ^ sjjodal exammers. The two offices may be held

with more schools and a greater number of Mis- ^^^^ ^°?f. P«f«>?? ™o cannot, however, act m

sionaries. Last year (1921) Bishop Calavassy ^oth capacities m the same case,

gjunded a Congregation of Sisters of the Greek Oonventnals, Ordbb op Friabs Minor (cf. C. E..

Rite, the first foimded among the Greeks, a^ to iv-344d).— A steady and solid growth of the order

whom he ,pve the name Sisters of the Pam- has set in since the eighties, so that there are

macanstos. This new congregation is imder the almost 2000 members at present, with bright pros-

d^tionofanUrsulme nun. Rev Mother Magdalen ^ts of a more prosperous future. There are 20

Photiades, of a promme^ family of Athens, who provinces with about 200 convents. The instruc

WBS reque^ by Pope Benedict XV to embrace ^^^^^ b^^h religious and educational, are imparted

the Greek Rite and take up this work. The semi- ^ ^^^ numerous colleges of the order, of which

nary founded m 1919 is durected by the secular g^eiy province posset, as a rule, one or more

clergy of Bishop Calyas^; the buildingc has a f^^ the philosophical anci theological formation of

^pacity of thuly seminarians. The Melclutes, or ^^8 clerici. There is one International College at

^ic-speakmg Syrums of the Greek Rite, have a ^^^^ ^Yiich supplies, to some extent, the lacuna

church with a priest subject to the jm-isdiction ^^^^g^ ^y the suppression of the once famous St.

of the Greek Cathohc Patriarch of Antioch. As Bonaventure CoUege. Besides the assistance at

the SyriaM and Chaldean patnarchshuven^ ^hoir and other spiritual practices, customary to

diction whatever in Constantinople, the Chaldean reUgious, the members devote themselves to study,

and Synan pnests m this temtory, as well as the ^^ ^^^ missions, preaching, and hearing confes-

very few faithfd of those rites are subject to the ^^^^^ *^ ^^^^ countries, as for instance in the

jurisdiction of the Greek Cathohc Bishop. There United States, they have charge of numerous

IS no church of either nte in Constantinople. Dur- parishes, missions, and stations. They have also

ing recent years several of the promment clergy the honor to provide the penitentiaries in the

of this diocese have died. Father Polycarp Basilica of St. Peter, Rome, and in the Holy House

Anastaaades, one of the founders of the Greek of Loreto, and have besides 12 penitentiaries od

Cathohc commumty of Constantinople m 1861, the i^f^ -^ the Basilica of Assisi, 3 in Padua, and 1 in

year of his conversion, and for over forty years Osimo. The order has also the right to have a

du-ector of this work, died m 1911, at the age of Consultor of the Holy Office, who is ipso jacio

seventy-two; Father Sophronios Petrides, Assump- the dean of the consultors, and likewise a perma-

tionist of the Greek Rite, editor of "Echos ^ent Consultor on the Congregation of Sacred

d'Orient," and contributor to the Cathohc Ency- Rites. To its missions in Moldavia and the Orient

CLOPEDiA, died in 1911; Father Silvain Barthassat, the order added a house in Damascus in 1912. It

AsBumptionist of the Greek Rite, Rector of the 2\ao founded a convent in Spain, and increased its

Oriental Seminary of Keum-Kapou, now closed, foundations in Denmark; its steady growth in the

died in 1917; Father Maximos Malatakis, author United States is evident from the fact that it has

of the confutation of the encyclical letter written added 11 houses since 1910, of which the seminary

by- the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople in at Rensselaer, N. Y., and the shrine at Carey, Ohio,

answer to Leo XIIFs invitation to re-unite with are the most important. The order directs also the

Rome, died in 1910; Father Christophore Papa- nuns of the "Giglio," founded in Assisi in 1702

dopulos. Vicar General under Bishop Papadopulos, with branches in the Orient. Aggregated to it,

died in 1920. with the right of participation in its spiritual priv-

Bishop Calavassy counts about 1500 Greek Cath- ileges, are numerous communities of nuns, of which

olics (1922) under his jurisdiction, and has 1 nine are in the United States. Many thousands of

secondary school for boys with 220 students, 1 for secular tertiaries are under the direction of the

girls with 100 students, and,2 elementary schools order; over 5000 in the United States alone. A

with 160 pupils. Two associations are formed variety of institutions are in charge of the religious

among the laity, Unio Grscorum Catholicorum of the order, such as chaplaincies of prisons, orpnaii-

Constantinopolus" and the sodality of the Immacu- ages, hospitals, homes for the ageg, etc.

late Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The order has produced many distinguished men

in the various branches of learning. A few of the

Oonsnltors, Diocesan (C. E., IV-323.— -There more recent literary authors are: Balthassar Lorn- must now be diocesan consultors in all dioceses, bardi (d. 1802), the famous commentator of Dante; and likewise in all secular prelatures in which there Laurence Fusconi (d. 1814) ; Louis Pungileoni (d^ are no cathedral chapters. The consultors have the 1844); Anthony Brandimarte (d. 1838), the librarian same rights and duties as the cathedral chapter of Leo XII and hymnographer of the Congregation in the government of members of the diocese and of Rites; William della Valle (d. 1805); I^rancis at councils. They should number at least six, or Villardi (d. 1833) : Francis Detti (d. 1885) ; Alphonse four in dioceses where priests are few, and should Consoli (d. 1879). In a very special manner the live in or near the episcopal city. Before taking order has cultivated the art of music, haviujs pro- office they must swear to act faithfully and with- duced more than 300 masters distinguished in this out favor. They are all appointed fir9t by the art, Those deceased since 1800 are ; Louis Anthony