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three separate kiDgdoms-^two-fourths in Rumania, one-fourth in Hungary, one-fourth in Jugoslavia. The episcopal seat remains in Temesvar, Rumania. In 1020 the Jesuits founded a house in Szeged with a novitiate attached, towards which work Mr. Joseph Varhelyi made a munificent gift. During the World War Bishop Julius Glattfelder converted the epis- copal residence into a hospital, and for two years taught canon law in place of the former professor who was called to the army. Of the 50 priests assigned to the spiritual needs of the soldiers, some were wounded and one was taken captive. The seminarians to the number of about 100 fought in the army, many being wounded, while others were killed or taken prisoner. Among the recently de- ceased are the following persons of note: Canon Anthony Wittenberger (d. 1016), for sixteen years director of the diocesan chancery; Joseph Nemeth (b. 1831, d. 1916), titular Bishop of Isaura and for- merly administrator of the diocese; Dr. Alexander Wekerle (d. 1921). Prime Minister of Hungary, who befriended the Church as governor of Zlapodia.

The Catholic population (1921) is 970,944, for the most part Uerman; the minority are Hun- garians, Bulgarians, Bohemians, Croatians, or Rumanians. The priests number 401 seculars and 673 regulars. There are 273 parishes, 13 monasteries for men and 38 for women; 1 university with 5 professors and 32 students; 5 colleges for boys and 15 for girls; 4 normal schools with 28 teachers; 19 training schools with 108 teachers; 135 elementary schools with 375 teachers; 2 orphan asylums, 1 in Temesvar and 1 in Nasrbeeskerek; 3 day nurseries, in Szeged, Arad, and Temesvar, respectively. The asylums are in charge of the Government which contributes nothing towards the support of the Catholic institutions. For the clergy there is a con- gregation of Mary, and a sodality for the laity, the Congre^tion of Mary, Sodality of the Sacred Heart, Rosary Society, an apostleship for the men, a society for social welfare, Society of St. Vincent de Paul, a charitable organization of the women, and a social organization of the Catholic people. The Catholic publications are numerous, totalling 11, of which 5 are political, 1 religious, 2 social, 1 devoted to music, and 2 for youth.

Cate (cf. C. E., IV-558d).— Latin American re- public in the West Indies, comprisins the island of Cuba, the Isle of Pines and small adjacent islands. The area is 44,215 square miles, and the population, according to an estimate of November, 1919, was 1;S^,905. The area, poptdation, and density of each of the six provinces were as follows:



Pinar del Rio Matanzas .... Santa Clara . . Camagiiey ... Oriente


3,174 5,212 3,260 8,266 10,076 14,227


Population in 1919

697,583 266,198 312,704 657,697 228,913 735,810



Per Square


219.77 51.07 95.09 70.95 22.71 51.31


The population in 1919 increased 261,369 over that of 1916. The whites formed 74.3 per cent and the colored 25.7 per cent of the total population. The immigrants in 1919 numbered 80,485, of whom 30,573 were Spanish, 24,187 Jamaicans, 1,236 Chinese, and 745 English. The chief cities are Havana, 363,506; Cienfuegos, 95^65; Camagtiey, 98»193; Santiago de Cuba, 70,2^; Gu&ntanamo, 68,883;

Matanzas, 62,638; Santa Clara, 63,151; Manzanillo, 56,570.

Education. — Each municipality has a board of education, and government schools are beins estab- lished in all towns and rural districts, as education is compulsory. In 1919 there were 334,671 children enrolled in the government schools, which had 6,151 teachers. In 1919, 223 new schools were estab- lished. In each province there is maintained a Government Institute for Advanced Education, to which are annexed the normal schools for training teachers. University instruction is given in the University of Havana, which is divided into the three Faculties of Liberal Arts and Sciences, of Medicine and Pharmacy, and of Law. According to the latest census statistics, illiteracy has been reduced to 31 per cent and is now rapidly disap- pearing.

GovERNMBNTrf^The Provincial Government es- tabli^ed by the United States in 1906 continued until 24 January, 1909, when the national govern- ment was resumed after the institution of electoral reforms. The present government is republican in form; the president is chosen b^ popular suffrage and serves four years. He appomts his own Cabi- net. The National Congress consists of a Senate (24 members, 4 for each province) and a House of Representatives (118 members, 1 for every 25,000 inhabitants). A new electoral code was adopted in 1919.

EooNOBnc CoNDmoNB.— The total foreign com- merce of Cuba during the fiscal year 1919-20 ex- ceeded 11,290,000,000, which, compared with 1918-19, shows an increase of $504,000,000 or of 64%. This included imports, valued at $435,257,727, and ex- ports, valued at $855,138,341. The chief articles of export were sugar and honey ($376,000,000) and tobacco ($13,500,000), most of which went to the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1918 the tobacco manufactured in Cuba consisted of 331,705,125 cisars, 341,803,669 boxes of cigarettes and 378,426 pounds of cut tobacco. In 1918 the produc- tion of tobacco amounted to 508,980 bales (81,436,240 pounds), and in 1919-20 the sugar crop was 3,735,425 tons, valued at $1,005,451,080. The total area of the sugar plantations was 1,384,812 acres. In 1918-19 there were 211 sugar mills. The State owns about 1,250,000 acres of forest lands. In 1919 there were 3,200 miles of railway, connecting the principal towns and seaports from Pinar del Kio in the west to Santiai[0 de Cuba in the east. The question of nationalizing the railways is under consideration. There are 1,285 miles of cart roads open to traffic.

Ecclesiastical History. — In 1912 the dioceses of Camagiiev and Matanzas were erected, each com-

g rising the province of the same name. In 1921 f gr. Fietro Benedetti was made Apostolic Delegate for (Zhiba and Porto Rico. For Catholic statistics see Santiago db Cuba, Archdiocbsb of and its suf- fragans.

Civil Hibtobt.— Cuba's career as a republic has been successful, except on one occasion, 11 Feb- ruary, 1917, when two companies of soldiers out- side the walls of Havana mutinied and the next day the entire force of government troops in Ciego de Avila, Semtiago de Cuba and towns of the eastern part of the island revolted and forcibly took possession of those districts. The United States fleet was sent to Key West in readiness for any emergency, but found the Cuban Government able to control the situation. The revolution was suppressed in less than two months. Since 1909 the following have been presidents of Cuba: Jos^ Miguel G6mez (1909-13), General Mario Gracia Menocal (1913-21), and Alfredo Zayas (1921-25).