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who, on 9 December, 1872, approved the new deficits of former years before the establishment institute to be known as the Congregation of the of parliamentary government, and in part by rail- Daughters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. way undertakings and construction of public works.

Sister Mary of Jesus built the first house of The total eicpenditure for old-age pensions was the Society at Berchem near Antwerp, and adjoin* 33,711,000 kroner, of which one-half was expended ing it erected the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, by the State. An important feature in the adminis- She then established her religious in Aix-en- tration of the finances of Denmark is the main- Ftovence and at La Servianne, near Marseilles, tenance of a large reserve fund. In weig^hts and Many houses were founded after her death, amoxigst measures the country has now adapted itself to them the mother-house in Rome. The constitu- the decimal system of Central and Southern tions were finally approved by the Holy See 2 Europe.

February, 1902. The foundress was assassinated by Education.— There are 3466 public elementary the gardener of La Servianne, as she walked in schools of which 63 are in Copenhagen, 158 in the srounds with her community. On the expulsion other towns and 3245 in the rural districts. The of £e Congregation from France, her body was total number of pupils in 1918 was 406,000. Be- removed to the Basilica of the Sacred Heart at sides the elementary schools, there were 13 gov- Berchem. She had ruled her institute with great emment schools and 150 private schools and prudence and charity and given an example of certain unclassified private schools, which had in the highest virtue to the perfection of her life. 1918 an attendance of 60,000. For higher in- The introduction of her cause of canonisation was struction there are furthermore (1919) : a veterinary signed by Pope Benedict XV, 25 May, 1921. and agrictdtural college at Copenhagen with 58

professors and teachers and about 600 pupils; 203

Denmark (cf. C. E., IV-722d).— The census held technical school with 23,000 pupils; 21 training on 1 February, 1921, gives the area of Denmark colleges for teachers with 1600 pupils; 81 commer- as 16,566 square miles and the poptdation as cial schools with 12,500 pupils; 21 agricultural or BJXSJSOfI, including 184,133 in North Schleswig. In hortictdtural schools, and 58 popular high schools 1916 the population, excluding the Faroes, consisted (adtdt schools of about 9000 pupils) ; a college of of 1,415^33 males and 1,505,540 females. The pharmacy with 80 students; a dental school, an largest cities with their i)opulation in 1916 are: art school, and a polytechnical institute. 'The Copenhagen 506,390 (with suburbs, 605,772), adult schools are all private, but to them and the Aarhuus 65,858, Odense 45,303, Aalborg 38,102, agricultural schools the State makes an annual Horsens 25,149, Banders 24,428. grant of about 706,000 kroner. Grants are made

EooNOMic CoNomoNS.— Of the total area of to the grammar and middle-class schoob amount- Denmuk 80 per cent is productive; about one- ing annually to about 4,000,000 kroner. The Uni- sixth of the unproductive area is peat bogs. Of versity of Copenhagen has about 100 on the faculty the productive area 6 per cent is forest and of and a total attendance of about 3200 students, the remainder less than one-half is arable, and Recent Histoby. — In 1916, a plebiscite in Den- the residue pasture and meadows. The acreage mark favorins the step, the Virgin Islands were and production of the chief crops in 1920 were as sold to the United States for $25,000,000. At the follows: wheat 156,^6 acres, 189,000 tons; rye 525,- same time the United States agreed to recognize 512 acres, 319,700 tons; barley 596,292 acres, 512,- Danish sovereignty over the whole of Greenland. 700 tons; oats 1,012,787 acres, 684,100 tons. During In 1918 Iceland became a sovereign state of Den- the first three years of the World War, Denmark mark; this new status is the culmination of long was called upon to furnish food supplies in greater agitation on the part of Iceland for greater equality Quantities than ever before in her history, but between the two countries. The Bill granting the submarine campaign in 1917 cut off the supply autonomy was first submitted to the Legislature of raw materials from abroad and the lack of of Iceland, ratified by a plebiscite among the fertilizers resulted in decreased production of the people of the island, and finally passed by the land. On 15 July, 1920, there were in Denmark Danish Parliament. During the World War Den- proper 563»467 horses, 2,286,408 head of cattle, mark maintained a position of impartial neutrality, 504,241 sheep, 1j007,861 swine, and 13,997,015 hens, although the war had adverse economic effects on Denmark owes her prominent position in dairying the people, as the British Government, in their and agriculture chieny to the Cfo-operative Sjrstem. policy of blockading Germany, restricted imports The divisions of land are so small and stocks of into contiguous neutral states. At the Peace Con- animals are so great — ^nearly 60 per cent of the ference at Versailles in 1919 it was decided that Danish farms consist of less than thirteen acres the portions of Schleswig which had been taken each— that, without an organization to combine away from Denmark by Germany as a result of the scientifically the productive capacity of the dif- war of 1864, should decide bv a plebiscite whether ferent farms, the country could hardly have gained or not they should be attached to Denmark, and the' rank that is now holds. The Central Co- provision for this was made by the Treaty of operative Committee has general powers of super- Versailles. Schleswig was accordingly divided into vision over the entire country. The total value three zones; the first, including the territory to of the fisheries in 1919 was £3,006,222. The fleet the north of the line reaching from the south of in 1919 consisted of 15,422 boats. In 1920 the Tondem to the north of Flensburg; the second value of the exports was about $430,000,000; of comprising the center of the German population, the imports, 1800,000,000. In 1918 most of Den- namelv the city of Flensburg; the third, including mark's trade was with Germany, Sweden, Great both banks of the Kiel (I^anal. The first voted Britain, and Norway. The country proper (exclud- for union with Denmark; the second to remain ing Copenhagen) had in 1919, 4197 nules of road, with (Germany; and the third, bein^ completely b^des 23,654 miles of by-ways. In 1918 there German, was excluded from the plebiscite. Den- were 2635 miles of railway, of which 1283 miles mark in turn was to recompense Germany for rail- belong to the State. In 1920 the state debt was road property and all state buildings, also make £51,458394, divided into an internal and a foreign restitution to Danish citizens for loss sustained in debt. The latter amounted to £14,130,282. The exchange in crowns; and to assume responsibility piiblic debt was incurred in part by large annual for the pensioning of widows and orpnans, and