churches and chapels, 40 oratories, 50,000 Catholics, and 4000 catechumens.
South Shantung, China, — ^During the war the mis- sion of South Shantung was in great danger. Eleven missionaries were deported, wmle the remaining 52 were permitted to keep up their work only after the Washington administration made a vigorous potest against their deportation. This protest had been induced by enterprising American Catholic prelates. Three American missionaries were then sent to China and the danger ceased. In 38 years this mission has made over 98,000 converts. On 1 September, 1921, the mission reported 77 Euro-
§ean and 3 American priests, 20 native priests, 97 isters, 33 seminarians, 92 collegians preparing for ?irie6thood, 13 Brothers, 2 hospitals, 13 dispensaries, 43 orphans cared for, 10300 children baptized in 1921, of whom 7700 were in artictdo mortis, 6 high schools, 98 elementary schools, 185 prayer and 724 winter schools, 5735 pupils, 98,190 Catholics and 43,680 catechumens 'in a population of 12,000,000. New mission fields have been assigned to the society in Kansu, Hi, and Honan.
Australian New Guinea.— The Prefecture Apostolic of New Guinea has come nearest to the self- supporting stage. Through large cocoanut planta- tions a fair income is assured to the mission. Figures for 1920 show: 27 priests, 22 Brothers, 35 Sisters, 6467 Catholics, 47 schools, 2170 pupils, 31 chapels, 23 main stations and 23 substations. On 6 Decem- ber, 1921, the first American Sisters left San Fran- cisco for this mission. The pioneer band numbers foiu*. The first American priest and Brother left the United States 3 March; the New Guinea mis- sion thus has 6 American missionaries.
South America. — ^In the Argentine Republic at Buenos Aires a mission college nas been opened for
STATISTICS OF THE SOCIETY OF THE DIVINE WORD
Philippine Islands Dutch £. Indies. Toco
1 26 49 74 35
5 70 72 10 12 38
17 40 48
• • •
• • *
• • •
• • «
• • •
718 192 125
• • •
46 65 40
• • •
• • ft
43 25 23
the training of young men for the society. There are 100 candidates. The missions report: 185,000 Catholics, 7 colleges with 1783 students, 2 semi- naries with 73 seminarians, 73 parochial schools with 4112 pupils, 87 priests, and 57 Brothers.
In Chile two colleges have been established and a parish erected at Osorno in 1911. There are 35,000 Catholics in this parish. Of 6000 school children
only 600 are in school. The mission shows 35 priests and 6 Brothers.
In the Indian missions of Paraguay the society conducts 2 schools with 24 boys and 19 girls in attendance. There are 2 mission stations with 5 priests and 6 Brothers. This mission is a relic of the old Jesuit Reductions. It belongs to the Diocese of Asuncion, and the superior of the mission is the delegate of the bishop to the Indians. Diffi- culties in the mission are numerous, owing to the nomadic instincts of the i)eople.
The society is working in 6 dioceses in Brazil, with the care of 200,000 Catholics. There are 5 colleges with 600 students, 1 seminary with 40 stu- dents, and a mission house with 17 candidates of the society. Some of the parishes have as many as 40,000 Catholics. There are 70 priests and 25 Brothers working in Brazil.
Statistics. — Figures for the United States for 1922 show 56 priests, 29 scholastics, 11 clerical novices, 62 Brothers, 20 Brother novices, 7 Brother postu- lants, 230 students for the priesthood, 15 Brother aspirants, total 430. The appended chart shows the figures for March, 1921, throughout the world.
DlTorce, Dbglaratiox op Nullity (cf. C. E., V-59a). — Those who are permitted to impugn the validity of a marriage by complaint before the ecclesiastical courts are: (a) the married parties; in all cases of separation or declaration of nullity, unless they are responsible for the impediment; (b) the promoter of justice when the impediment is public in its nature; all other parties are re- stricted to denouncing the marriage as null to the ordinary or promoter of justice. If from a trust- worthy, unimpeachable, authentic document it is evident that there has existed an impediment of disparity of worshi]^, orders, solemn vow of chastity, ligamen, consanguinity, affinity or spiritual rela- tionship, and it appears equally certain that no dispensation has been granted from the impedi- ment, the ordinaiy, after citing the parties and calling in the defender of the bond, can declare the nullity of the marriage without the necessity of the usual ecclesiastical trial. Unless the defender of the bond is certain that the declaration is justified he must appeal, and the judge of appeal having heard him is to decide whether to confirm the declaration or send the matter back to the court of first instance to follow the regular procedure.
Pauunb Privilegb (cf. O. E., v-60a).— Before the privilege can be used the baptized convert must ask the unbaptized partner (a) whether he or she is willing to be converted and to receive baptism, and (b) if he or she, at least, consents to hve in peace without insulting God. Usually these de- mands are to be made with the authorization of the convert's ordinary; but they are valid if made privately by the convert, and even licit if the usual
Erocedure cannot be followed, though they would 6 worthless in the external forum unless cor- roborated by at least two witnesses or in some other authorized manner. The convert would lose the right to marry again if after baptism he or she gave the unbaptized party just cause for separating. The decrees regarding marriage contained in the Constitutions of PaiU III, Pius V, and Gregory Xin for certain foreign mission territories have been extended to the adjoining regions. In case of doubt the law favors the Pauline privilege. The Code states that the dissolution of a marriage, even consummated, between unbaptized persons in virtue of this privilege is in favor of the Faith, that is it favors tne liberty of the baptized party, but it does not restrict the word baptized to Catholics.