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15,500 square miles is cultivable and about 3,000,000 Dominicans refused to accept them. In Januaiy,

acres suitable for grazing. Tobacco is grown in the 1922, Archbishop Nouel, in answer to a request

northern part, the production in 1918 being 33,- from the managing editor of the New York

439,648 pounds. The production of sugar from "Nation," stated that in his opinion, and that of

17,000,000 acres in 1920 was 1,326,438 bags (320 prelates from all parts of South and Central

potmds each) ; of cocoanut, about 1,500,000. The America, the American occupation was in no way

railways of the Republic have an extent of approxi- based on any principles of right and justice, and

mately 150 miles; in addition there are about 255 the intervention was unjustified. miles of private lines on the large estates. The

Dominican Central Railway, which formerly be- Down and Oonnor, Diocese of (Dunensis et longed to an American company, became, by virtue Connorbnsis; cf. C. E., V-147b), in Ireland, in- of a contract made by the Government in February, eludes Antrim, the ^eater part of Down and the 1908, the property of the Republic. The vigorous Liberties of Coleraine, in Londonderry. On 20 continuance of the extensive road-building cam- September, 1908, Most Rev. John Tohill was con- paign marks the Government's chief attainment in secrated Bishop of Down and Connor to succeed recent years. Up to the end of 1918 the revenue of Most Rev. Dr. Henry, who had died in March of the government was derived chiefly from customs that year. Doctor Tohill, d. 4 July, 1914, and the duties on imports and exports and from internal present bishop, Most Rev. Joseph McRory, was revenues. A property tax was inaugurated in 1919. consecrated his successor 14 November, 1915. Be- The customs collections for 1920 were estimated at fore being appointed bishop, Doctor McRory was $7,500,000. The national debt is about $13,100,000. professor of Sacred Scripture and Oriental languages A treaty between Santo Domingo and the United at Majniooth College from 1887 and elected vice- States, ratified on 8 February, 1907, authorized an president of the college in 1912. A diocesan chapter issue of $20,000,000 in 5% bonds, secured as to prin- was organized on 20 December, 1920, by the dpal and interest by a first lien on the customs rev- authority of Pope Benedict XV, but in general enues of the Republic, the general receiver being ap- the growth of Catholicity in this diocese has been pointed by the President of the United States. The retarded during the past year by the violent in- interest of this has been regularly paid and it is tolerance of the Orangemen in Belfast. expected that in 1925 the whole debt will be regu- At the present time (1921) the Irish Catholic lated. population numbers 180,000, and the diocese com- HiSTOBT (1910-20).— In 1911 President Ram6n prises 60 parishes, 116 churches, 5 monasteries, 2 C&ceres was assassinated. The new president was convents for men and 16 for women, 160 secular forced by revolutionary outJ3reak8 tne next year priests and 22 regulars, 30 lay Brothers, 160 nuns, to resign, and until the constitution could be re- 1 seminary with 200 seminarians, 7 high schools vised and the general elections held. Archbishop with 45 teachers and attendance of 1028 boys and Alejandro Nouel, Metropolitan of the Republic, 379 girls, 1 training school with 9 teachers and was asked to serve as provisional president. He attendance of 100, 245 elementary schools with 570 resigned, however, early m 1913, and was succeeded teachers and attendance of 27,154, 2 industrial by Jo66 Nordas Vald^s. A revolution broke out in schools with 10 teachers and attendance of 270. Puerta Plata and was quelled by the threats of Among the institutions of the diocese are : 1 orphan the United States to refuse the payment of the ai^lum, 1 home for the aged, 1 home for the blind, custom collections to the rebellious party. At the Mater Infirmorum hospital in Belfast, 3 refuse regular elections of 1914 Jimenez was elected to homes, and 1 day nursery. Practically all the public succeed Ram6n Baez (elected provisional president institutions allow the priests to minister in them, in place of Vald6s, who resigned) . He was im- and the Catholic industrial schools receive aid from peached and on 26 July, 1916, Francisco Henriquez the government. Various Gaelic and temperance y Carvajal was chosen provisional president. The societies are organized among the clergy and the United States would not recognize him because he St. Vincent de Paul Society and Catholic Truth refused to accept the continuance of American con- Society among the laity, trol over the customs and the constabulary. The

deadlock and disorders that followed caused the Boyle, William, b. at Dalkey, Ireland; killed

intervention of the United States and the establish- in battle near Ypres on 16 August, 1917. He made

ment of temporary military government for "the his coUe^ate studies under the Rosminian Fathers

purpose of restoring order." There was desultory at Ratcliffe, England, and became a Jesuit at Ti^-

nghting between the natives and the United States labeg, Ireland, on March 31, 1891, where his elder

marines, and the latter finally reached Santiago, brother was a novice. He studied philosophy at

indiere on 6 December, 1916, the American flag was Enghien, Belgium, and Stonyhurst, England, and

raised. Since then order has been maintained by theology at MiUtown Park. He followed the usual

the American forces, numbering 5000 marines, course as professor and prefect of discipline in

There was an American military provost marshal various colleges, and was a missionary for a time

in Uie capital of each province, who attended to at Dublin and Limerick. On November 10. 1914,

the policing of each province. At the head of he offered himself as a military chaplain out it

the administration was a military governor and was not until a year later that he was appointed

rear admiral of the United States Navy. The ad- to the Royal Irish Fusileers. Later he was attached

ministration continued mainly in the hands of the to the 8th Dublins. As a chaplain in the World

Dominicans, who directed their school cfystem, their War Father Doyle attracted attention by his heroic

courts, and their town governments. To the United devotion to duty, by the holiness of his life and by

States authorities was reserved the control of the the influence he exerted over Protestant as well as

treasury and customs and the appointment of the Catholic soldiers.

governors of the provinces. On 14 June, 1921, a His biography by Alfred O'Rahilly, reveals a

proclamation was issued by the United States Mili- most winning personality, and a priest of great

taiy CominiflBion setting a date eight months ahead holiness of life, out at the same time portrays him

for the withdrawal of the American forces and the as following a form of asceticism which can scarcely

restoration of the national Dominican Government, be considered the normal method of the Order

but the conditions of withdrawal were such that the to which he belonged. IS