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Ecuador, Republic of (cf. C. E., V-278c).— Owing elected by adults who can read and write. From to the unsettled boundary line, the area of the 1833 to 1908 Ecuador had twenty presidents. The South American republic is uncertain, but it is esti- President in 1912 was Gen. Leonidas Plaza Gutierrez, mated at 116,000 square miles. The last census was who had also been president from 1901-05; in 1916, in 1903, when the population was 1,323,590; the Dr. Alfredo Baquenzo Moreno; in 1920, Sefior Luis latest estimate in 1915 gave a population of 2,000.- Tamajo.

000. The chief towns are Quito, the capital, with Until October 20, 1918, most of the Indians were 70,000 inhabitants; Guayaquil, 93^51; Cuenca, virtually in bondage and peonage, and debt servi- 50,000; Riobamba, 18,000; Ambato, Loja, and tude in its worst forms existed on the landed estates, Latacunga, each about 10,000; Bahia, 8000; Esmer- but by a legislative decree on that date, peonage aldas, 4000. There has been some discussion about was abolished. Military service was made com- selling the Galapagos islands (2400 square miles in pulsory on 24 May, 1921. The boundary dispute area, population, about 400). These form the with Colombia was settled by a treaty in 1917; Archipelago of Galapagos, officially caUed Colon." that with Peru stiU remains unsettled.

Education. — In 1912 public instruction was im- Rbuoion. — ^The State recognizes no religion but proved. During the school year 1919-20 there were grants freedom of worship to aU. For Catholic 1664 schools in operation in the Republic, 1359 of statistics see Quito, Abchdiocesb of, and its suf- which were government schools, 168 municipal, and ragans.

137 private schools. The total attendance in 1919-20 «j ^ . ,^

was 92,512 (50,502 males and 42,010 females). The ^™*^*^' Abotdiocmb op (Edmontonensib; cf. attendance at the government schools was 63,395; ^- E., XIII-^29d), m the Province of AJberta, at the municipal schools, 16,055; in the private Cwiada, was fonnerly Imorm m the^D^^^^ schools, 13,062. The total expenditure on elemen- ^^^' ^" ^^ divided first to form the vicariate of tary education in 1920 was £200,401, on secondary Saskatchewan, and again (30 November 1920) to education, £90,817, and for the universities, £72,435, form the see of Calgary. At the same time the remam- making a total of £313,707. The number of students ^er of the diocese was made an archdiocese and the at the universities was 744. name changed to Edmonton. The present boundanes

Eoonomic Conditions.— ^The staple produce of °^ ^ archdiocese are as follows: on the north the Ecuador is cocoa, the production in 1919 being ^^h de^ee of latitude, on the east the 110th degree 22,474 cwts. The coffee exports in 1919 were 3,729,- <>* longitude, on the south the northern boundary 451 pounds. The export, of rubber in 1919 were ff Township 30 m the province of Alberta, and on 886,373 pounds, but are now declining, on account ^he wert the Rocky Mountains. Rt. Rev Emile J. of the destructive methods used in the collection ^^^ Bishop of St. Albert, was made archbishop ot of the product. The chief imports come from the S™^^*o^*^^ ^^^^ *^e see until his death, 10 United States, Great Britain, and Peru. According March, 1920. He was succeeded 7 September of to a report made by the director of statistics in S® sa^e year by the present mcumbent, Rt. Rev 1920, the 1918 trade included imports valued at gemy Joseph O Leary, who had been consecrated £16,690,720 and exports at £27,449,536. There were ^^^^ ^^ Chariottetown 22 May, 1913. Archbishop in 1920, eight factories for cotton and woolen tex- OI^arywMbornatlUchibucto.Dio^^^ tiles, giving an annual production of 610,000 yards 13 March, 1879, studied at the Seminanr of Mont^^^^ of cotton cloth and 100,000 yards of woolen cloth: ?>^d^Canadian College, Rome, was ordained 21 Sep- also 13 sugar works, flour mills, breweries, and tember, 1901, and installed as Archbishop of Ed- chocolate factories monton 8 October, 1920.

Communications.— In 1918 the steam vessels en- ^ ^J ^}}^ present time (1^ the archdiocese has a tering the ports of Ecuador numbered 160 with a J^atholic population of 55,000, attended by 93 regu- tonnage of 195,537; clearing 153 with a tonnage of J«J, »?<* 37 secular pnests. There are 61 parishes, 181,637. There is now discussion of a proposed Jf^ churches, 139 misaons, 45 stations, 3 commum- line between Quito and the coast, which will render ^^^^ o' men and 16 of women, with a totol of 474 accessible a fertile area of some 1,000,000 acres. Sisters, 15 lay brothere, 14 boarding schools, 34 A concession of half of the land has been granted E^^^S^ schools, 8 hospitals, and 2 orphan asylums, the railway by the Government. In 1917 Ecuador P® ^^^^^ Alexandria Militaiy Hospital permits had 365 miles of railway and 4360 miles of tele- the pnests of the diocese to minister m it. Dunng gfi^pli^ Archbishop O Leary 's incumbency a senunary,

tkJ f«^«,\,« A^u* ^« Qi Ti^^rr^v^^ loia »^.Mi»4^ juniorate and college have been established, and a f^^l^Sl^nH tlf. !n^^ C^^^^^i^ P^Pe"-' "TBe Western Catholic," his been

^^^^\ f f J?^i^"^AU^*l*^n° £2,262,448, ^ into circulation. The Priests' League and S^ r^pSn^^miK '^;n™ ^^^ ??'npf inf ^^^^ °^ Columbus are established. Du^ring the wT™ nn ™ ^TiZL w^^^ onH Worid^ War many of the French priests retimed

SC-r^.^ n?r^nt VrniSi i^ ^'nlVl!! ^'f^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^'"^ ^^^^ 1^^, the laity eulistcd^' 1^!!. j^i"^^^^^ ^""^ ^^"^ ^^ ^'^"^ in large numbers, and the Knights of Columbus

"SS^^MV^llgft^*^^^^^^ dates from ^^^ ^ P™"^-* ^^ ^ '^^ ^' ^- «• C-P-«-

28 December, 1906. The executive power is vested Edmund, Congregation op Saint (cf. C. E.,

in a president elected for four years. The legislative V-293b).— The congregation is dedicated to St!

power is given to a Congress of two Houses, the Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbuiy, whose body

first consisting of thirty-two senators, two for each is preserved incorrupt at Pontigny Abbey. There

province chosen for four years, and the second of are about 100 priests. Before the laws of spoliation

forty-eight deputies, on the basis of one deputy for in France the mother-house was at Pontigny Abbey

each 30,000 inhabitants, chosen for two years, both and the congregation also possessed the Abbey of