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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/293

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Rev. Louis Scmrecsanyi, the present (1921) incum- creases are necessa^ in order to cope with the

bent. Bom in the diocese of Cassovia, 1851, and growing educational demands. In 1921 there were

ordained 1873, Archbishop Szmrecsanyi was ap- under the management of the Ministnr of Educa-

pointed to the titular see of Magydos 14 November, tion 165 vernacular schools and 61 Europeanized

1904, and made auxiliary to the Archbishop of schools with a total attendance of 40,423; under its

Zagrab, and on 26 March, 1912, he was pronioted inspection 3790 vernacular schools and 1S2 Euro-

to the titular see of Cyraa and made coadjutor, peanized schools, with a total attendance of 279,310

In 1910 there were in this territory 661,679 Latin (41,711 girls). In 1920 there were 53 provincial

Catholics, 83,619 Greek Catholics, 492 Orthodox council schools and 60 private schools for 18,174

Greeks, 455,205 Protestants, 69,279 Jews; 200 primary pupils; the total attendance in the Gov-

parishes, 348 secular and 51 regular clergy. emment primary schools was 10,749. The provincial

Egypt, an independent sovereign state in aUiaace ^^*HL'Sfi5**i!5/'L^'t^'**?7 ^^T^^J'J^i?^

^thGreat Briton. The total area of Egypt |^h^b«^^^'^ti**'l.^^ *°ti<S) fee^

proper, including the La.yan D««rt^ the r^j^ S&^lf^Z6^S^ti 5 Irivtte

fei^a*^fexSdiS th? S?Af ^ ifmSoO T^S'^K- «e°«\*^«, ^V "^^f t^e.ins^tion

STmilel. but the civiU«ed aiea includes only ?^ t^ MmistryofEducat.on and varying greaUy

square luues, "".",""=„""'.. ,^»>,,i-*:„„ •« lo. m efficiency. Progress is being made toward the

il^o'*'"*'^n«ritt«n? /^ thf STr^^a^ The establishment of artate univerefty at Cairo. Under

759.9I8, or 1061 persons to t^^*^^^'"^- J?? other Government departments are the school of

f'?rt.^?.'Ti^7^ri^(>i^?M^^Ale^d^ •'"' <353 students), the*^ military school (90 cadets),

i?..*.?^**?^ I M oi^7^^'J^^\ n^Ste tl»e veterinary school (19 students), the higher

t^ii^' ^^ ^■t'J]:^{J^\^^&^^^' -chool of a^culture (99 students) the inter-

^/^- ^ °?*"^^S"W.™'^Kk- tS£' "nediate schc^l of agriculture (108 students), the

24,356; French,_ 21 4?70: Italians. «),198, . Twto. ,. . , -„ „5.ti,V «i,H 2 rpfnrmatoriii

489,296 m. >^d,««^"^'.,280,^ in <^om^^^^^ q^^^^ B^^^j^ ^^ Great Britain are reserved for

'^JT^^9^*in^'^.Tr!S«i^^^^ ite o^ discretion the following matters: (1) Se-

and 4,302,259 m unproductive or unknown occupa- ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^.^.^j^ imperial commumcations in Egypt;

  • S!^* _ ^^^^ ,, • .. •_* J r (2) defence of Egypt against all foreign aggression

REUGioN^In 1W7 the population ^^wted of ^p interference, direct or indirect; (3) protection 11 653,148 Moslems, 854 773 Orthodox. 59»581 Jejro. ^f foreign interests and foreign communities in Of the Christians 47,481 were Prot^tants, 107,^7 g^^^ ^^ g^tish protectorate, which was estab- Cathohcs, and 14,416 of various Christian creeds. ^^^^ j^ 1914^ ^^ been terminated, and the coun- Thus the Moslems formed 9M3% of the com- try is left free to work out such national institutions mumty, and the Christians 8X)3%. The liigyptian ^ j^^y ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ aspirations of her people. Almanac" for 1917 gives the following data con- rj.^^^ ^ uncertainty about the future Legislative cemjng the Coptic Orthodox Community: The Assembly of Egypt. The Law of 1883 created a head IS the Patriarch KyroUos V, who bves m Legislative Council, a General Assembly, and Pro- Cairo and 18 assisted by twelve Mutrans and two yi^cial Councils, which were consultative rather bishops. There are numerous Coptic convey ^han legislative. In 1913 the first two were amal- among the most important being Deir el Azra,peir gamated mto a new body called the Legislative Amba Samuel, Deir Antonius, Deir Amba, Deir el Assembly. The Government, however, was not Azra, Deir el Sunan, Deir Amba Bishoi, I^ir bound by the resolutions of the Assembly, and Makarios el Misn, all for men. There we five moreover, never called the Assembly after 1913. convents for women m Cairo. The Coptic churches xhe Capitulations, i. e., concessions or extra- in Eg>Tt number about 600, some of them being territorial rights secured by resident foreigners over 1000 years old. The hieh Court of the Com- f^m the Sultans of Turkey, have presented a hard mumty. or Meflf&«crM*ttje(i4[a, is presided ovCT problem to the Egyptians. The multiplicity of by the Patriarch and eight others elected by the Jurisdictions arising out of them, and the facilities Community. The Meglts was instituted by Decree y^ldch they give to men of uncertain nationality to of 14 May, 1883. and was modified by Law No. 3 escape the local jurisdiction, greatly complicate the of 1912. It has branches m all the Mutnanias and problem of law and order, while the exemption of bwhopncs. There are two other courts: a coiurt foreigners from direct taxation, other than land which looks into the peraonal complaints of the and house tax, cripples the Government in raismg clergy, and an Assembly {El Maflf ma), whose mem- revenue, since in practice it is impossible to impose bere consist of the Mutrans and certam of the q^ EgnJtians taxes from which foreigners are higher clergy to amend the existing laws and to exempt. The capitulations of Germany and Aus- mitiate fresh legislation. Ecclesiastical education is tria were terminated by the recent Treaties of given m three special schools, two of which (Cairo Versailles and St. Germain; those of Greece by and Alexandria) are for the training of young men an agreement signed with Great Britain at Athens for the priesthood, and the third for anfs, or blmd ^q |^

young men^^who desire to devote themselves to Economic Status.— The cultivable area of Egypt the Church. proper was estimated, in 1919, at 7,691,793 Jeddans

Education.— The lack of education amon^ the in- (1 /e<f<fan=lJ038 acres), and of this 2329,215 were habitants is revealed in the illiteracy statistics of uncultivated for want of reclamation. Forced labor 1917, the proportion of native Egyptians able to (corvie) has been abolished, but the inhabitants read and to write being, males 120 per 1000, females may be called out to guard or to repair the Nile 18 per 1000. The effects of the Government to banks in flood time. The agricultural population correct this state of affairs is seen in the increase (Fellahin) forms about 62 per cent of the whole, in the budget of the Ministry of Education from A large proportion of them are land-holders on a £E. 685,203 in 1919-20 to £E. 1,013,503 in 1920-21. small scale, and the others are laborers, the relation Even thus the budget still amounts to only 2 ^r between employer and employee being hereditary, cent of the State budget, and further liberal in- The economic prosperity of Egypt is regiilated by