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E8THOinA 291

was to give land to the peasants, to parcel them to 1887 she enjoyed a certain autonomy, but with

out into small farms, special preference being given the advent of Alexander in (1881^) the policy

to soldiers. The theoretical compensation for the of Russianizing the province was introduced, and

inventory, however, amounted to almost nothins. the Germans struggled to defend their privileged

Hie arable land is divided as follows: fields position against the Russian Government and the

2^18,004 acres; meadows 2,408,840 acres; pastures native races. In 1005 a violent revolution broke

1,671337 acres. Twenty per cent of the surface is out, which assumed the form of an anti-German

forest land. The principal crops, with acreage and war, directed against pastors and other Germans,

yield, as follows: rye 376,004 acres, 6,435,488 as well as the great proprietors. The outbreak, put

bushels; wheat 37,351 acres, 612,930 bushels; barley down by militaiy force, resulted in the strengthen-

297,453 acres, 5,968,308 bushels; potatoes 155,518 ing of the German position, and the representa-

acres, 25,240,705 bushels. In 1920 Esthonia had tion of the province in the Duma (1906-07).

363,263 head of cattle, 436,259 sheep, 213,002 pigs. In April, 1917, the Russian Provisional Govem-

and 155,262 horses. Owing to the low purchasing ment promulgated the law of Esthonian autonomy

value of the Esthonian mark (375 manm to the and provided for local self-government, under a

dollar in 1920), there is but little foreign trade. National Council, elected by universal^ secret.

The chief exports are flax, timber, cellulose, and equal, and proportional suffrage. This council met

meat. Hie trade in 1920 amounted to 3,912,394 for the first time on 14 July, 1917, and Esthonia

poods (61 poods— one ton) of imports and 7,675,- virtually became a federal state in a Russian con-

508 pooda of exports. Of the total imports federation. In October Bolshevism appeared in

1,142,759 poods came from the United Kingdom Esthonia, and after a coup ditat in November the

and 1,298,670 from Germany; of the total exports National Goimcil declared itself the sovereign

3,531 ,2iS2 went to the United Kingdom and 275,905 power in Esthonia until a Constituent Assembly

to Germany. could meet. On 28 January, 1918, the Baits for-

GovERNMBNT. — According to the constitution of mally invited Germany to occupy the country, to 15 June, 1920, the supreme power in the State is which after protesting the council replied (24 the people, who delegate its execution to the Con- February) by declaring Esthonia an independent stituent Assembly, and the legal representative of state, and constituting a provisional government the countiy is the President of the Assembly. By under M. Pacts; the National Coupcil maintained order of the Constituent A^embly the Government itself by missions abroad, and was recognized as a exercises the supreme executive power, and the de facto governing body by Britain (3 May), Supreme Court of Justice the supreme judicial France (15 May), and Itaty (29 May), a recogni- power. The people have the power of the initiative tion amplified by the Bntish declaration of 10 and referendum. The Government, consisting of September. As soon as the German evacuation 11 departments, but no fixed number of ministers, began the National Council resumed power, re- is the instrument of the Constituent Assembly, constituted the provisional government and held holds ofilce for one year and must always have a elections for the Constituent Assembly which yns quorum of fifty per cent of its members. Serfdom opened on 23 April, 1919, and on 19 May pro- is abolished and the peasant becomes the proprietor claimed Esthonia an independent republic. A of his land with the right of sale. Suffrage is treaty of peace was signed with Russia at Tartu universal, the voting age for both sexes being (Dorpat) on 2 February, 1920, by which the land twenty. The death penalty and the total confisca- frontiers of Esthonia were fixed. Another treaty tion of goods are forbidden. There is no censorship, in July, 1920, with Latvia fixed the southern The Assembly is composed of 100 members, elected boundaries. Finland recognized the republic as de for three years on the basis of proportional repre- jure independent, and by 7 June, 1920, de facto sentation. The members are not the represents- recognition had been accorded by practically all tives of the districts which elect them, but of the the powers, whole nation. The Assembly is governed bv a

Prsesidium (one of whom is chairman) elected at Esitttgom (German, Gran), Archdiogbsb or

the first meetinjg of the Assembly, and chosen by it. (Stbigombnsis), situated in Lower Hungary, the

The Premier-President is head of the State, repre- primatial see of that country. This see is filled

sents the republic, presides over meetings, out by His Eminence John Cardinal Csemoch, bom in

executive power belongs to the Government, which Szalkolcza, Hungary, 1852, ordained 1874, served

holds ofilce at the discretion of the Assembly. The as a pastor and chancellor of the archdiocese, went

Supreme Court of Justice watches over the execu- as a deputy to the Hungarian Parliament, appointed

tion of the laws and treaties, and if necessary elects Bishop of Csanad 16 February, 1908, tnmsferred to

the judges. Every Esthonian citizen may, without Kalocsa 20 April, 1911, promoted to (^ran 13 Decem-

prejudicing his right as a citizen, declare the ber, 1912, and made a cardinal-priest 25 May, 1914.

nationality to which he considers himself to belong. He is assisted by an auxiliary, Rt. Rev. Joseph

the four recognized nationalities being Russian, Medardus Kohl, titular Bishop of Samosata. On

Swedish, Lettish, and German; he has the right 11 September, 1919, the cardinal received a letter

to education in his language, and to the use of from the Pope deploring the Hungarian devolution,

it in his daily life. Mihtary service is made uni- which had despoiled many of the dioceses and

versal. « i . hindered the work of the clergy. He congratulated

HiSTOBT. — Esthonia was conquered and Chris- the bishops, priests and faithful on their courageous

tianised by the Germans of the Teutonic Order resistance to the religious persecution, an impor-

overseas for trading and missionary purposes. It tant factor in the revolution, which was by no

was invaded in 1558 by Ivan the Terrible, and means entirely political. He assured them that he

finally submitted to Sweden. In 1710 it was seized would take a keen interest in Hungarian affairs,

by Russia, who confirmed her new position by the and expressed his desire that the Hungarian bishops

treaty of Nystad in 1721. In this treaty religious should do the same. The canons of the cathedral

freedom hitherto denied was claimed for the mem- of Esztergom are prothonotaries apostolic ad instar,

hen of the Greek Church. Under Russian rule durante munere. The Catholic population is

Esthonia retained her own laws (provincial law) counted at 1,594,515 by the 1920 statistics, as

and her own special system of administration. Up against 2456 Schismatics, 329,727 Protestants, 334