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EX7S0PE 293 EX7THANASIA

mora became the "Zone of the Straits," controlled Chatalja lines, and the Dodecanese Islands, and it

and governed by an Inter-Allied Commission and wiU be seen that no nation has profited more than

a smaU area known as the Suvla Reservation was Greece in proportion to its pre-war importance,

set aside as a cemetery for the Allies who fell in with its present population of six million. Lnxem-

the attempt to take Constantinople. Greece re- burg, formerly a Grand Duchy of Germany, has

ceived Turkish Thrace and numerous islands of the pla^d herself imder the protection of Belgium, ^gean Sea. After being imited to the Russian The following countries remained unaffected by

Empire as an autonomous grand duchy, Finland the World War as far as area is concerned:

E reclaimed its independence as a republic in Decem- er, 1917. She was awarded the Aland Islands, by


the League of Nations in 1920. The three Baltic Country Sguare Population

States of Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania declared


their independence under republican forms of gov- HoUand

emment, Esthonia (area, 23,160 sq. miles; popula- Spain

tion, 1,750,000), and Lithuania (59,033 sq. miles; Sweden

population, 4,800,000) in February, 1918, and Latvia Portugal

(25,000 sq. miles; population, 1,503,193) in Novem- Switzerland

ber of the same year. Soviet Russia with its 95,(XX),- United Kingdom

000 inhabitants is still in a chaotic condition. The Norway

reconstituted Poland, now a republic, with its seat


12,582 194,783 173,035 35,490 15,976 121,633 125,001


6331,231 (1920)

20,783,844 (1920)

5,847,037 (1920)

5,957,985 (1911)

3,861,508 (1920)

45,516,259 (1911)

2,691,855 (1920)


of government in the ancient capital of Warsaw, Euthanasia (cf. C. E., V-630a), means a good 9r

denves its territory from the three powers, who painless death. Its advocates would apply it in

profited in the former partitions of tne country; certain severe cases to (1) the sick, (2) the insane,

from Germany was acquired parts of Posen, West and (3) the criminal. These three classes of un-

Prussia, East Prussia, and Silesia; from Austria- fortunates, according to the advocates of euthanasia,

Hungary, most of GaJicia and a part of Bukowina, are doomed to a life of suffering and are a useless

and from Russia all of Russian Poland. The expense to the State, and for these reasons should

probable area of the republic is 100,000 sq. miles. not be permitted to live. Committees of experts

The new republic of Czechoslovakia, with an area would be appointed to visit the wards of hospitals

of about 52,000 sq. miles and a population of and to decide what patients may possibly be cured.

14,000,(XX), includes Bohemia, Moravia, and parts Those who have no prospects of recovery and suffer

of Silesia and Slovakia, united in October, 1918. At from severe maladies are to be given some drug or

the same time the Kingdom of Jugoslavia, formed opiate which will render them unconscious and

by the imion of Croatia, Slovakia, and Dalmatia, was gnulually bring on death. Other committees wonld

proclaimed, a total area of 101,254 sq. miles, with visit insane asylums and penal institutions and

a population of about 15,000,000. By the terms destroy the lives of those who have no chance of

of the Treaty of Rapallo in 1920 Jugoslavia was a cure, or who can in no way become dependable

awarded the Dalmatian coast and islands, while to members of society. "Euthanasia is just now being

Italy fell the towns of Zara and the islands of made the subject of nationwide discussion among

Cherso and Lagosta. The city of Fiume and the physicians, ministers, philanthropists and criminolo-

outl3dng territory was declared internationalized, gists. Efforts are being made in New York, Massa-

Montenegro is no more, having been absorbed by chusetts, Ohio, and Missouri to have it legalized by

Jugoslavia. Albania (11, OCX) sq. miles), the bone of law. Many physicians favor it. Many lawyers

contention in the Balkans, remains independent, believe that as a legal issue the state possesses the

Italy, however, keeping the island of Saseno. Italy's moral and constitutional right to practice euthan-

aoquisition of the islands of the Adriatic constitutes asia (Chicago Inter-Ocean, 16 March, 1913). As

a small part of her territorial gains as a result of the author £ls stood by the beds of consumptive

the war; the redeemed region of Trentino, Gorizia, or syphilitic children, he has wondered if it were

and Istria together with Trieste, now belong to kindness to keep life in the pain-racked body. Cure

Italy, and insure her control of the Gulf of Venice was out of the question so far as medical science

and all the North Adriatic littoral. All this area now knows, and one wonders why days of pain

constitutes about 17,000 sq. miles. Italy also ad- should be added to days of pain. The same ques-

ministers the island of Rhodes, which in fifteen tions recur as one passes through the incurable

years is to decide by plebiscite whether or not it is wards of an almshouse, especially as one studies

to be ceded to Greece; and also the island of Kas- the cases of the cancer patients" (Werner's "Amer-

telorizo, near Kekova Bay, acquired by the Turkish ican Charities," revised ed., p. 26). George Ivea,

Treaty of Sevres. in his "History of Penal Methods," concludes that:

By its recovery of Bessarabia and parts of Hun- "All [criminals] who cannot ultimately lead useful, gary, mentioned above, Rumania became the largest human, tolerably happy lives should be destroyed of the Balkan States, with 17,000,000 inhabitants, as soon as their condition has been determined." and 122,282 sg. miles. To the northeast is the The principal objection to this vicious doctrine nascent republic of Ukraine, whose boundaries are is that God alone has the supreme dominion over still vague, and which has a probable area of 200,000 human life. No committee of social workers or sq. miles and a population of 30,000,000. The most legislators may presume to trespass upon this right recent change in boundary has been in the district of the Oeator. God is the author of life and it is of Teschen, Silesia; in 1921 Teschen was awarded for Him to decide when the service of His creatures ' to Poland, but the territory containing mines was in this world terminates. Any law authorizing a awarded to Czechoslovakia. The acquisition of committee of physicians to enter institutions and new territories by Greece as a result of the Balkan do away with tne lives of inmates would be invalid Wars gave the country a total area of 41,933 sq. as it contravenes the higher law of God. A second miles and an estimated population of 4,821,300; argument against the application of this doctrine is add to this, all of Greece's acquisitions in the World the mental anguish and fear which it would bring War, the ifegean Islands, Western Thrace, and the to the unfortunate sick and suffering. Every in- greater part of the province of Aden in Asia Minor, mate of a hospital or other institution for the sick all that was left of Turkey in Europe, west of the and suffering would be in continual fear of death,