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natural tember

of Antoine and Victoire (Salgnes) Fabre. He re- became a pilmmage for the political, literaiy and ceived his elementary education at a school in scientific world, and he was gruited a pension of his native villaff e kept by his godfather, and later 2000 francs a year. His wife, who had borne eight


1 the ly^Se at Rodez, where he made rapid children, his collaborators, died in July, 1912. progress, being especially attracted by Virgirs Fabre's first publication was a memoir m the "Bucolics" and "Georgics." He then proceeded: to "Annales des sciences naturelles" on the predatory the Normal College of Vaucluse, where he received hymenoptera, which merited him one of ttie pnzes his diploma at the age of eighteen; a little later of the Institute of France and excited the aston- began his career as teacher at Carpentras. While ishment of Darwin and Dufour, and was the fore-

ivequien, oirecxor oi xne museum oi Aviguuu, txuu. *v»ii*H»^«»f "***'-** **'»^«** ««, w^«v^-..,ww >*. w~^^-.-. — —,

accompanied him on his scientific expeditions. By his vigor of thought and enthusiasm, and wherem

Requien he was introduced to Horace Moquin-Tan- he studies the insect livmg its hfe, and exammes

don, director of the botanical gardens at Toulouse, its instincts, its habits, its passions, its aptitudes.

ever, a pamphlet by Leon Dufour, the naturalist experimental, to a large degree it was onginal, of Les Landes, that led him to devote himself and in his investigating he devised most delicate to the study of insects. In 1852 he was trans- and diflficult procedures, by which he made the ferred to the lycee of Avignon, where his every insects reveal their secrets. The "Souvenirs have spare moment was devoted to natural history, appeared in English in separate volum^under^^ In 1858 he won his licentiate in natural sciences following title "The Life of the Spider, 'The in the Faculty of Toulouse and a little later Life of the Fly/ "The Mason^ees,^ "Bramble the doctorate. He had hoped to win a uni- Bees and Othere,'\«The Hunting Waspj versity chair, but it was not so decreed. In 1870 of the CaterpiUar," "The Life of the Grasshopper," mainly through the hatred of the secretaries and "The Sacred Beetle and Others"; "The Mason- the envious he lost his position at the lycee, and Wasps," "The Glow-Worm and Other Beetle ; retired to Orange. In 1879 he withdrew to S^rignan, "More Hunting Wasps" ; "The Life of the Weevil" ; where he lived till his death, carrying on his won- "Insect Adventures" (all published by Dodd Mead, derful experiments and observations, and writing of New York). „ . „ ^ ^. »#• i, *t «__l

his immortal works. Fabre, who was mainly self- , J™' ^'^^ ^'f^ ^^ ^^ ^«»" ^«^« <*'■• ^"^^ ^ew York, taught, had a brilliant mind, and was possessed of

wonderful perseverance, and keenness of observa- Fabrlano and Mateliea, Diogbbb of (Fabrianbn- tion. Unlike so many scientific writers, he dwelt sis et Matheligbnbib; cf. C. E., V-744a), re- and conversed with nature, and read her book in- established and united to the see of Matelica by cessantly. As a result his Catholic faith grew only Pius VI 8 July, 1785, situated in the province of stronger: "I can't say I believe in God," he says: Ancona (Central Ita^), directly subject to the Holy "I see Him. Without Him I tmderstand nothing; See. The bishop, Kt. Rev. Louis Ermini, b. in without Him all is darkness. Not only have 1 Rome 13 December, 1856, made a private cham- retained this conviction, I have aggravated or berlaln 27 November, 1903, prothonotary apostolic ameliorated it, whichever you please. Every period supernumerary 25 October, 1905, coadjutor canon has its manias. I regard atheism as a mama. It at the chureh of St. John Lateran, deputy to the is the malady of the age. You could take my skin monasteries of Rome in 1905, assistant secretary from me more easily than my faith in God." at the Council 20 October, 1908: spiritual director Fabre speaks with great respect and sympathy of the Pius Seminary, appointed titular Bishop of of Darwin, who admired his entomological knowl- Amatha 30 December, 19C^, and auxiliary of Porto edge; but his theory of evolution he rejected em- and Santa Rufina, consecrated bishop by Cardinal phatically as mere theorv incompatible with the Respighi 31 January, 1909^ transferred to Caiazso evidence of the facts he had discovered. He had 4 December, 1914; proclaimed 22 January, 1915; hoped to convert Darwin, but the great English transferred to Fabriano at the Consistory of 30 scientist died before the second volume of the June, 1921. succeeding Rt. Rev. Andrea Cassulo, "Souvenirs" was published. Until 1910 Fabre's retired. Tnere are at present (1922) in the diocese name was little known outside scientific circles; 35 parishes, 103 churehes, 40 secular and 10 regular to-day his fame is worldwide. In that year Sweden priests, 3 monasteries for women, 1 abbey, 1 con- and France paid him honor long due. He received vent for men, 10 lay brothers, 34 Sisters. 1 semi- the linnffian medal of the Royal Academy of nary with 18 seminarians, 1 elementary school with Sweden; the French Academy conferred on him its 120 pupils, 1 asylum with 180 inmates. Four public literary award, the Nee prize, and France unani- institutions receive Government aid. Fifteen asso- mously recommended him for the Nobel Prize, and ciations are organized among the der^ and laity, Rostand wrote of him as one of the purest glories and a weekly journal, "L'Acione," is published.