and to Petrograd (under the Czar these islands had dent oi the Provisional Government. In March, been administered by Russia as a part of the 1922, the city was siezed by the Fascisti, the Zanella Finnish duchy); and finally, Karelia, a province Government overthrown, and Deputy Giurati to the north of Lake Ladoga, where a large Finniah chosen head of the' Government. To quell the population existed. These claims were granted in disturbance, the Italian Government ordered the a treaty signed between Soviet Russia and Finland occupation of I^ume by Italian troops. President on 14 Oct<%er, 1920, at Dorpat, Esthonia. In 1920 Zanella and forty-nine members of the Constituent Finland was also given the Aland Islands by the Assembly continued to meet in Jugoslavia, where League of Nations. The majority of the population they had taken refuge, is Swedish, but the islands were nearer the coast pi-„Hiirii <ar.« t>b.t/,ttt», of Finland and had been ruled by Russia as a part *^m««»- See Belgium.
of the Grand Duchy of Finland. In the same year Florence, Archdiocese of (Flobkntinknsis: cf. there was a vain attempt at a conference at Hel- C. E., VI-106d), in the province of Tuscany, Cen- sing^ors to form a Baltic League among the small tral Italy. This see is filled by His Eminence Car- Baltic States as a defense against Russia. dinal Alfonso Maria Mistrangelo, b. 26 April, 1852,
entered the Congregation of the Clerks Regular Flmne, an independent state created by the of the Pious Schools at the a^e of ninete^i. Treaty of Rapallo, signed on 12 November, 1920, preacher, rector of Ovado College m 1880, and ap- between Italy and Jugoslavia. The area is 8 square pointed 19 Jime, 1899, taking possession 17 Decem- miles, and the population 49,806. Article 5 of ber following, succeeding Cardinal Bausa, deceased, the Treaty of Rapallo proposes that the area of He was made superior general of the Pious Schools Fiume be delimited by a special commission com- in 1900, named apostolic visitor of the order, and posed half of Italian and half of Jugoslav dele- created cardinal-priest 6 December, 1915, with the l^ates. Fiume owes its commercial importance to title St. Mary of the Angels, of which he took Its location at the only real break in the mountain possession 11 December following. In the beginning ran^e running down the eastern coast of the of 1918 he celebrated his episcopal jubilee and re- Adnatic. While it has not a naturallv fine harbor, ceived a letter of congratulation from the pope, its facilities have been well developed by Hungary By 1920 statistics there are in the archdiocese and are susceptible of further improvement, and 500,000 Catholics; 477 parishes, 800 secular and while not logically serving the same territory as 400 re^ar priests, 200 seminanans, 150 Brothers^ Trieste, it is a commercial rival of that city. In 1600 Sisters, 1900 churches or chapels; the chancel- 1914 the trade of Hungary found its political and lors of the cathedral are prothonotaries apostolic natural outlet at Fiume, and its surrounding coun- supernumerary, durante munere. By a decree of try and neighboring hinterland was wholly Slav, the Consistory of 24 August, 1917, the limits of the If the suburb of Susak, which is part of the port, archdiocese were altered, and on 15 January, 1918, is included in the city, the Italians, although the the Church of Monte Senario was made a minor largest ^oup in Fiume, are not a majoritv of the basilica.
population. Fiume was not included in the terri- v\nraa!¥a. T\rr^^€s« «« a^« T>»a^x^«».. tonal gains of Italy promised by the Allies in the ^^resta. Diocese op. See Pesqueira.
Pact of London in 1915; nevertheless, after the Florida (cf. C. E., VI-116b).— The area of the World War Italy claimed the city, despite the State of Florida is 58,666 sq. miles, of which 3805 protests of Jugoslavia. The Peace Conference at is lake and river area. The State is divided politi- VerMuUes (1919) refused to recognize Italy's de- cally into fifty-two coimties. mand. On 13 September. 1919, Gabriele D'An- Rbbourcbs. Agricidture.— In 1920, 41,051 farms nunzio, an Italian poet ana soldier, at the head of were operated by whites; 12,954 by negroes; farm a Volunteer force seized the city, negotiations acreage in 1920 was 6,046,491, 2,297,271 acres being for the disposition of which were then pending, improved. The total value of all farm property His action was disapproved by the Allies, and in 1920 was $330,331,717; operating expenses, $37,- the Italian Government issued an ultimatum 071,977; products, $80,256,806; cereal crops, $14,528,- ordering his return to Rome; upon his refusal 809; fruits crops, $23,216,209; live stock, $33,304,627. the city was declared blockaded and military The statistics of com and cotton crops were: Cot- forces were sent to dislodge him. The blockade, ton, 110,562 acres, 19,358 bales, value $3,440,593; however, was laxly enforced, and the troops sent com, 811,737 acres, 9,103,549 busnels, value $14^528,- against him mutinied. The situation became so 809. There were 3,645,811 orange-bearing trees.
Save that the Crown Council was summoned, producing 5,930,422 boxes, value $15,715,618. Live
'Annunzio reaffirmed his intention of retaining stock included 38,570 horses, 42,046 mules, 153 asses,
Fiume, and declared himself to be at war with 638,981 cattle, 755,481 swine, 64,659 sheep, 45390
Jugoslavia, threatening to extend his sway over the goats.
entire Dalmatian coast, and while the Italian popu- Commerce and Industries, — ^In 1919 there were in
lace seemed to give him its enthusiastic support, the State 2582 manufacturing establi^ments, capital
the Government insisted that the Adriatic ques- ^06,294,0(X), wage earners 74,400, wages $67,581, (XX),
tion should be adjusted by the Peace Conference, value of products $213,327,000. In 1919 the value
The question was adjusted in Rapallo. Italy, on of oversea exports was $72^42,179; the value of
12 November, 1920, by a treaty signed by Jugo- imports was $15,275,615. The fisheries of the State
slavia and Italy. According to its provisions Fiume give employment to over 90(X) men and vield an
was made an independent city linked by a cor- annual product valued at $3,5(X),0(X). ^ The total
ridor" to Italian Istria. Gabriele D'Annunzio, the assessed valuation of taxable property in the State
selfHstyled Rector of the Regency oftheQuaraero/' for 1920 was $304,923,946; State debt $601,567. In
who on 20 September, 1920, had declared Fiume 1917 there were nineteen railroads with a total
to be an independent State, vehemently denouncea mileage of 6060, main track 3833. The Florida East
the treaty, and declared war on Italy on 3 Decem- Coast Railway Extension to Key West was opened
ber. Fiume was bombarded by the Italian regulars in 1912.
and D'Annunzio was forced to leave the city. On Population.— In 1920 the population was 968,470,
6 October, 1921, the Constituent Assembly of an increase of 28.7 per cent since 1910. Of this,
Fiume elected Professor Riccardo Zanella as Presi- 36.7 per cent was urban; 63.3 rural. The average