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Bemeux and Mgr. Daveluy), 7 missionaries, and the instruction of young girls. In Manchuria the 17 faithful all beheaded in ISiSG, and 20 Christians native religious of the Holy Heart of Mary have martyred in 1860 and 1862. The Apostolic Letter installed several convents. Carmelite convents Maximum Illud," issued by Benedict XV in 1919, have been founded at Hue (1912), Pnom-Penh called attention to the need for native clergy. Mgr. (1919), and Chung-king (1920). llie European Petrelli' had been sent to Japan as Apostolic dele- congregations have received into their congregations ^ate in 1916 and 1917 and Mg^. Fumasoni-Biondi about 1500 natives. The religious orders of both m 1920. In 1919 Mgr. de Gu6briant, of the Society men and women of aU nationalities numbered 7630 of Foreign Missions of Paris, Vicar Apostolic of members in 1^0.

Canton, was named apostolic visitor in China. The Since 1912 there has been a total of 274,333 con- Holy See thus took a particular interest in the versions in the missions confided to the Society of extension and cultivation of the missionarv field. Foreign Missions of Paris, with an annual average To meet the needs of the situation, the bishops of 30,482; in 1920 there were 28,883. There have of the Society, which heretofore had no superior been (1912-20) 3|20 abjurations of Protestants; general, met at Honff-kong in April, 1921, and elected 1,096,650 baptisms of pagan children in ariictdo as first superior of the Seminary and of the Society mortis; the number of comessions and communions of Foreign Missions of Paris, Mgr. de Gu6briant. has been veiy high. Of recent years several asso- Bom in Paris, 11 December, 1860, ordained priest ciations have been organized and others re-estab- 5 July, 1885, the same year Mgr. Jean-Baptiste- lished, such as the Confraternity of the Hol^ and Marie Budes de Gu6briant went as a missionary Immaculate Heart of Maiy in Siam, the Cmldren to Southern Sze-ch'wan, in 1894 was made pro- of Mary at Pondicherry, the CoMratemity of Chris- vicar, and in 1910 Bishop of Eurcea and Vicar Apos- tian Mothers at Kwei-chou. Nocturnal adoration tolic of Kien-Chang, m 1916 Vicar Apostolic of has been organised at Maritime Tong-king. On 26 Canton and in December, 1921, Archbishop of July, 1914, a Eucharistic feast, in union with the Marcianopolis. international Eucharistic ConiEress at London, was

The missionaries are assisted in their labors by celebrated at Kien-chang. "Die Enthronement of the native clergy, the catechists, and religious. In the Sacred Heart in the schools and families has 1912 there were 889 native priests in all the missions been established in Burma, Cochin China, Tong- of the Society; in 1915 there were 984; in 1918, king, Japan, Sze-chVan. Pilgrimages, especialb^ 1073; and 1920, 1109. In 1912 in Southern Tong- that of the Blessed Virgin at La-Vang m Northern king 11 priests were ordained; in 1916 in Western Cochin China and that of St. Anthony at Kolar, Tong-kin^, 8; in 1918 in Eastern Sze-ch'wan, 4; in in Mysore, are much frequented. Weeks of reli- 1910 in Siam, 6; in 1920 in Western Cochin Cmna, nous conferences and the association called the 6. The missions possessing the greatest number of Catholic Bond have been organized in Burma. The native priests in 1920 were: Western Tong-kinjs, Catholic Association, founded at Tien-tsin, has 136; Southern Tong-king, 127; Western Cochin spread throughout the Chinese missions. The Soci- China, 91. According to countries they may be ety for Catholic Youth is established at Taiku listed (1920) as follows: Japan and Corea, 62; in Corea. Many reviews and bulletins are pub- Chian, 251; Eastern Indo-China, 660; Western lished such as "Le Semeur," "The Friend,** and Indo-China, 60; India, 76. Among the native clergy "The Voice" in Southern Burma, parochial bulletins recently deceased are: Fr. Josepn Tong (d. 1913), at Taiku in Corea, "La V^rit6" published in Chinese of Eastern Sze-ch'wan; Fr. Trinn (d. 1915), curate at Chung-king, the "Petit Messager Paroiasial of Hanoi for thirty-five years: Frs. Andr6 Vai in Coimbatore, the "Recherche de la V6rit6" in (d. 1916), and Jacques Ichang (d. 1916), of Man- Northern Manchiuia, the "Echo de TAssomption" churia; FV. Huyen (d. 1916), of Western Tong-king, in Siam.

ninety years of age and fifty-eight years a priest, In 1912 the Society of Foreign Missions had 5950 the last survivor of the great persecution of Tu-duc, churches, oratories, and chapels; in 1920 there were during which he ministered to the confessors of 6393. All the older missions have seminaries and the faith imprisoned at Nam Dinh, hearing their some of those recently created have establi^ed confessions, bringing them Holy Communion, and them. Maritime Ton^-king opened its seminary in giving them final absolution: Fr. Tin (d. 1918), 1912, as did also Kien-chang. Taiku opened a former confessor of the faitn, imprisoned during seminanr in 1914. In 1920 seminarians from Japan, the persecution of 1859; Frs. Doanh Chan and Corea, China, and Cochin China were sent to Rome Chuong (d. 1918), of Northern Cochin China; Frs. to make their theological studies at the College of Duong, Chinh, Khu, Tan, Duoc, Qui, Due, Van, Propaganda. The general seminaiy established and Le (d. between 1912 and 1916), of Western at Penang to receive seminarians from all the mis- Cochin China; Frs. Chien, Tsung, and Vien (d. sions had 74 pupils in 1912 and 97 in 1920. Colleges, 1918), of Western Cochin China; Frs. Giang and boarding and dav schools of good standing have Hoc (d. 1918), of Cambodia; Fr. Araya (d. 1918), also been established. These totaled 326 with 19,818 the first priest of Hakodate. In 1912 the catechists pupils in 1912, and 357 with 24,037 pupils in 1920. numbered 3330; in 1920 there were 3449. Schools Prmting presses have been established to supply for catechists have been founded at : Chang-Chim, the necessary books. There were 6 in 1912 and in Northern Manchuria (1912), Thai in Maritime since then one has been installed at Ninh-Binh in Tong-king (1913); Taiku, in Corea (1915) for Maritime Tong-king and another at Ghirin in women catechists; Southern Sze-ch'wan and Kwei- Northern Manchuria. The largest printing press chou (1916); Kai-nhum, in Western Cochin China of the Society is at Hong-Kong. Nearly all the (1920). In 1920 Nagasaki had 578 catechists; West- missions have orphanages for boys in charge of em Tong-king, 449; and Southern Tong-king, 215. the missionaries and orphanages for girls directed The native religious are very few, not more than a by nuns. In 1912 these numbered 452 with 24,009 hundred men. Religious orders of native women are children; in 1920 there were 429 with about the more numerous: in Eastern Indo-China the lovers same number of children, the decrease in the num- of the Cross number over 3000 ; in China there ber of institutions being due to diminution of are many Christian Virgins. In Eastern Sze-chVan resources. For the same reason there were fewer in 1912 Fr. Derouin established the Chinese con- hospitals, hospices, leper-hospitals, and dispensaries gregation of the Servants of the Sacred Heart for (582) in 1920 than in 1912 (636). Most of these