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on France from the industries of Alsace-Lorraine three classes, primary, secondary, and superior. It and will lessen the French normal shortage, but is directed by the Minister of Instruction aided it will not ofifset the loss of output in the damaged by the Government educational bureaux and inspec- mines of the departments of Nord and Pas-de- tors-general. The Superior Council of 52 members Calais. To make reparation for the damage done has cTeliberative, administrative, and judiciary func- to the mines and to other property, Germanv was tions, and a Consultative Committee advises on to deliver approximately 25,000,000 tons of coal the school ^stem. For purposes of local adminis- annually to France for ten years. The Germans, tration France is divided into 17 circumscriptions, however, have not paid the exact amount. As a called Academies, each of which has an Academic result of the Spa conference, held in July, 1020, Council. Each is. under a rector and each is pro- of the 2,000,000 tons promised to the allies, begin- vided with academy inspectors. Each department ning August, 1020, France was to receive 1,600,000 has a council for primary educational matters. In tons monthly. To obtain even these shipments 1919-20 there were in France and Algiers (exclud- France was obliged to pay Germany 200,000,000 ing Alsace-Lorraine) 2063 public kindergartens with francs monthly for six months for the feedins of 5242 teachers and 189,762 pupils; 786 private kinder- the Ruhr workers. The production of the Saar gartens with 999 teachers and 37,394 pupils; 56,503 Basin in 1920 was 9,410,433 tons. This lack of coal lay and 11,512 clerical primary and higher schools has greatly hampered production, especially that of with a total of 102,433 teachers and 3,835,816 pupils iron and steel, which in the first five months of (3,002,666 lay and 833,150 clerical). Secondary edu- 1920 was half the pre-war quantity. cation is given in the State lycees or communal

Dining the war the French textile plants, how- colleges, which in 1919 had 100,230 bovs and 45,168 ever, kept up production to a remarkable degree; ^irls. Higher education is supplied by the State in 1916 and 1917 the production of cotton andf silk in the 16 universities, divided into the four tradi- goods passed its pre-war level. The chief handicap tional faculties: law, medicine, science, and letters, of the textile industries at present is the lack of with an enrollment of about 40,000. These figures raw materials. Of the 456 textile mills in the show that secondary education, which in lYance is devastated district of lille, 75% had resumed pro- not free, is restricted to the minority of children, duction on 1 March, 1920. The return of Alsace- and that a large majority of the French children Lorraine will double the production of France, for cease to go to school altogether too early. In 1919 the textile industries of Alsace are of great im- a '^College of the United States was established portance and employ over 78,000 persons. Silk in Paris for American students. There are also culture is carried on with government ^icourage- technical schools, dependent on the Ministry of ment, most extensively in Gard, Drome, Ard^che, Commerce, industrial schools, municipal profes- and Vaucluse. By law of 23 April, 1919, an eight- sional schools, schools of commerce, schools of arts hour day prevails in France. and trades, and schools of horology. By an enact-

FoBEiGN Trade. — For the five years preceding the ment in July, 1919, compulsory physical education war France had an average annual unfavorable for children of both sexes was instituted, for boys "visible" balance of trade of some billion and a from 6 to 16, and for girls during the period of half francs. This was more than offset by "in- primary and secondary education. Out of the visible items, such as the interest on foreign invest- 6445 schools which existed in the devastated regions ments accruing to France as a creditor nation, before the war, 4500 were destroyed bttween 1914 During the war the purchase of vast amounts of and 1915, but since 1918 no less than 5345 have war materials caused a great increase in the un- been established. The 1920 budget includes 1,176,- favorable balance, which continued after the war. 600,000 francs for education. During 1919, however, the exports reached the Ck>vERNMBNT. — ^The executive power of France is record figure of 8,713,000,000 francs, some 2 billions vested in a President elected for seven years, and above the previous high figure in 1913. Since 1919 a Ministry; the legislative power in the Chamber the exports have shown a steady increase. The of Deputies and the Senate. The President chooses imports for home use were valued, in 1920, at the Ministry, generally from the two Chambers, 35,404,000,000 francs; the exports of French origin, and with the consent of the Senate can dissolve 22,434,700,000 francs. the Chamber of Deputies. Each minister is in

Railways. — In France there are 25,167^ miles of charge of an administrative department, and each railway in operation. In October, 1918, the govern- is responsible to the Chambers for his acts, while ment assumed control of the railroads during the the whole ministry is responsible for the policy war and for a year after its termination. In 1920 of the Government. The Chamber of Deputies the lines were reorganized and co-ordinated to form is elected for four years, by the scrutin de liate one national system. Rolling stock and other with proportional representation (in elections in equipment suffered during the war, and a large which no party list has secured an absolute majority part of the lines on the Nord and Est railways in the votes cast), a method adopted in the new required entire rebuilding. In twenty months after Electoral Reform Bill of 1919. There are now 610 the signing of the armistice, 1353 miles of the 1407 deputies. The Senate, composed of 314 members, destroyed were put back in service, and in 1920, is elected for nine years, one-third retiring every as a result of tnis effort, transportation in devas- three years. The Council of State is presided over tated regions was practically restored to normal, by the Minister of Justice, is the last resort in Electrification is now receiving the attention of administrative units, and prepares the rules for the the railway officials. In 1921 the railway deficit public administration. For administrative purposes amounted to 1,500,000,000 francs. There are air France is divided into 90 departments, 385 arrondis- lines from Paris to Warsaw, London, Lausanne, sements, 3019 cantons, and 37,963 communes. The Copenhagen, Brussels, Bucarest, and Havre. Half three new departments, Moselle, Bas-Rhin, and the cost of the initial outlay for construction is Haut-Rhin, contain 23 arrondissements, 97 can- provided by the Government. State subsidies, tons, and 1703 commifties. Three cantons and 19 amounting to three-fourths or four-fifths of the commimes have been erected since 1911. Each de- receipts, nave been necessary to keep the service partment is placed under the prefect, nominated in operation. by the Government, and assisted by a Prefecture

Education. — French education is divided into Council. Each commune has a municipal council, 21