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FRANCE 322 FBANOE

Meiise. Forges, Regnevillc, Malancoiirt, Haucourt, Amiens to Paris. To meet the patent need for and Bethincourt were captured in rapid succession, man-power. General Pershing offered all his force but in April the German drive west^of the Meuse to General Foch, who had been appointed gener^ slackened. Further progress was barred by a alisdmo of the allied armies on 28 March, and French salient of creat natural strength, resting on when on 4 April, the Germans renewed the con- Hill 304 and the bicuspidate ridge called Le Mart flict, they were met by unified command. With Homme (Hills 265 and 295). Moreover, General the aid of American troops and Fi-ench rein- Joffre was able to stiffen his line with reinforce- forcements, the line became stabilized, but the ments, since the British had replaced the French Germans, after a brief respite continued the offen- troops north of the Somme River and now held sive until 2 June, when they were at Chateau- ninety miles of the western front. The arrival Thierry, forty miles from Paris. At Ch&teau- of Russian contingents, though numerically incon- Thierry their advance was checked by the Amer- siderable, stimulated confidence. Consequently on icans, who took Belleau-Wood and Torcy. On 22 May, 1916, General Joffre struck a counterblow. 15 July came the fifth German offensive, the in- The heaviest fighting was around Fort Douaumont, fantry pressing on toward Chalons. The Mame which was taken and retaken by the Germans, was crossed in several places and Chateau-Thierry The openins of the Anglo-French drive (battle of occupied. A counter-offensive under Marshal Foch the Somme) forced the Germans to shift their aimed to cut the enemy communications at Sois- forces and the battle of Verdun flickered out. The sons, La Fere, and Fismes. With the aid of the great drive beginning on 1 July, 1916, advanced the Americans he succeeded in clearing Chateau-Thierry French front to a maximum depth of six miles of Germans, and in flattening out the German and netted the French 80 square miles of terri- salient existing since the attack at Verdun. On tory. In the fourth week it came to a standstill; 26 September the American army again came the summer was spent in series of futile but furious prominently into action, and aided General Gou< battles around the ruined villages of Thiaumont raud in carrying out a great combined offensive and Fleury. The failure of the Germans at Verdun in the Argonne. In the north the British Second proved that the tide of war had turned at last in Army and the Belgians under the command of favor of the allies. Henceforth the Germans were King Albert took Dixmunde, Passchendaele, and on the defensive, and their line was battered back Messines, after which a deadlock never occurred mile by mile. The battle of the Somme (1 July again in Belgium. During October the German to 1 November, 1916), resulted in heavy losses retreat all along the line became a rout. St. for the allies, but it had relieved Verdun, worn Quentin, Ostend, Lille, Cambrai, Le Cateau, down German man-power, and created such an Bruges, Valenciennes, and Sedan fell to the allies, embarrassing salient in the German line that the Meanwhile negotiations for an armistice were French were tempted to make a counter-offensive opened, but this did not cause a halt in the of- at Verdim. By two brilliant attacks in November fensives. The armistice was signed on 11 Novem- and December General Nivelle regained Forts ber. 1918.

Douaumont and Vaux, and was rewarded by the Never in all its history did the French nation

appointment to the command of all the French display greater courage or unanimity than during

forces in France in succession to General Joffre, the wearisome years of war. Not only were the

who was retired with the title of "Marshal of French troops engaged with the enemy in France,

France." In Februarv the British advanced two but also in Salonika, Italy, and Asia Minor. Their

miles, wiping out the Ancre salient. In March a land was ravaged in the north and theif loss in

genend retirement of the Germans to the Hin- men was terrific. One man out of six in the entire enburg line commenced. About 1000 square miles population had served in the army. The French of Fi*ench territory were regained, but the country army is reported to have lost 1,089,700 killed and was devastated, the towns laid in ruins, and all 265,000 missing, or 162% of the immense mobilised railroads destroyed. A terrific drive against the force of 8,410,000. The number of French prisoners Hindenburg Line near Arras (battle of Arras) was was 446,300. Naval losses included 5421 killed launched by the British under General Allenby. and 5214 missing. The loss suffered by the coun- The French under Nivelle and Haig attacked in try amounted to a total of 119,801,000,000 francs, April along the Aisne with remarkable success, and included damages to landed property, 35,446,- In Jime, 1917, a contingent of American troops led 000,000 francs; loss of household effects, cattle, by General Pershing arrived in I>Yance to take its securities, 32,352,000,000 francs; raw materials and place with the Belgian, British, Italian, Russian, provisions, 28,861,000,000 francs, and loss to revenue and Colonial troops on the front. In France a War or trade, 23,242,000,000 francs. Council was created. It repudiated the German The terms of the armistice which the Germans peace offer, decided for bread-cards, and for the were given to accept or to reject within seventy- minimum prices for dairy products, for the volun- two hours, when they met Marshal Foch and his tary calling of the 1918 class, and industrial victorious army at Rethondes, six miles east of mobilization. The new war minister provoked un- Compifegne were as follows: the Germans were to usual opposition by his Bill providing for the in- evacuate Belgium, France, Alsace-Lorraine, and corporation of priests into the army. The AJlied Luxemburg within 14 days, and all the territory advance continued, with remarkable results, espe- on the left bank of the Rhine within a month, cially at Chemin-des-Dames, Passchendaele Ridge, The allied troops were to occupy those areas to- and Cambrai. The Germans replied with their gether with the bridge-heads at the principal cross- great offensive on 21 March; created an opening ways of the Rhine (Mainz, Coblenz. and Cologne) between the Oise and Somme and broke the English to a depth of 30 kilometers on the right l^ink. front, which was saved by the French cavalry. The The treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Buk^est were Germans continued in the direction of Amiens, to be denounced and German troops withdrawn Noyon, Bapaume, Albert, and Montdidier had to from Russia, Rumania, Austria-Hungaiy, and Tur- be evacuated. The shattering of the English Fifth key. German submarines and warships were to Army compelled the French to send rr-enforcements be surrendered, also 5000 locomotives, 5000 motor and to extend their lines. On 1 April the Germans lorries, and 150,000 railway cars. The economic were within six miles of the main railway from blockade of Germany was to continue. The iemui