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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/340

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FRANCE 324 FRANCE

defend the country against attack. The Unified draw from Cilicia, and the boundary between Syria Socialists, who had long opposed co-operation with and the Turkish territory as arranged in the Sevres the bottraeois parties, sent their leaders, Guesede Treaty was altered. In the Disarmament Confer- and Sembat, into a Coalition Cabinet headed by enoe held in Washington, D. C, the Frendi re- Viviani. Jaures, the leader of the French Socialists, vealed their lack of faith in Germany and held was assassinated in August, 1914, because he had tenaciously to the maintenance of a large auxiliary opposed the three-year military law. The failure fleet if their ratio of capital ships was as low as of the Balkan campaign overthrew the Viviani 1.75. No decision as to the auxiliary fleet was Ministry, which was succeeded on 29 October, 1915, reached, but France was reduced to 10 ships with by one headed by Briand. The administrative eys- a total tonnage of 221,170. France was also one of tem was thoroughly organized and a War Council the participants in the nine-power treaty declarmg of five members was appointed, with full authority for the integrity of China, for equal opportimity to direct affairs. In March, 1917, Ribot succeeded in trade intercourse, and for the revision of Chinese as premier, and declared unflinchingly for the customs, and proved her faith by renouncing Kwang- retum of Alsace-Lorraine. In September, Painlev6 chau-wan to China from whom in 1898 she had became premier. A German Peace propaganda was leased it for ninety-nine years, organised by a financier, Bolo Pasha, who had sue- Thb Chttrch.— The Catholic Church in France ceeded in bribing several newspapers in the interest faced the delicate work of reorganisation attendant of Germany. Caillaux, former premier and Mm- upon the Separation Laws with a courage and a ister of Justice was suspected of treasonable cor- tact that are by degrees re-establishing her moral erspondence with Germany. For three years no and spiritual ascendancy. During the war Catholics Government ventured to attack Caillaux openly, gave splendid proof of their patriotism, 20,000 but in November, 1917, Cl^menceau became premier priests having served under the flag. Statistics and succeeding in convicting Bolo of high treason, published by the Documentation Catholique of Caillaux was found not guflty, but was convicted {^aris show that the number of French religious of dangerous correspondence with the enemy, mobilized was 8928, the majority of whom be- Intbbnational Relations.— In the treaty of longed to congregations establioied outside of Peace between France and Turkey (10 August. France, who returned as volunteers. Of these 1464 1920), the French protectorates of Morocco and died in the war. This number included 42 As- Timisia were recogmzed, although the dispute over sumptionists, 34 Benedictines, 40 Capuchins^ 28 the internationalized territory of Tangier remained, Dominicans, 280 Brothers of the Christian Schools, the French demanding in 1922 that the sovereignty 165 Jesuits, 41 Lazarists, 53 priests of the Foreign of the Sultan be extended over Tangier, which is Missions^ 81 Fathers of the Holy Ghost, 100 Little virtually a demand that the sovereignty of France Brothers of Mary, 39 Redemptorists and 54 Trap- be recognized, as (in the Morocco Agreement of pigts. Two hundred twenty crosses of the Legion 1912) the Sultan had accepted the French pro- ©f Honor, 346 military medals and 4722 citations tectorate. By a decision of the Supreme Council in orders were won by members of religious con- in March, 1920, Kamerun and Togoland were gregations. The Bishops of France took an active divided between Great Britain and France as man- part in the Sacred Union, and conquered the respect dataries. By an An^lo-French agreement of 15 of associates of every creed. Since the war there is September, 1920. Syria was allotted to France, evidence of a desire on the part of the (Jovem- Cilicia was to be occupied by the French but ment to be more generous ana just in its dealings thev were to abandon Damascus, Hama, Homs, with the Church. Its attitude is conciliatoiy, as and Aleppo, these cities having previously been shown by a return of ecclesiastical properties seized promised by Great Britain to the Kingdom of and held by the civil authorities under the law Hejaz. On 19 February, 1921, a defensive alliance of separation. Some of the Catholic schools have between Poland and France was concluded. An been opened unofficially, and many men have real- amicable understanding with Italy had also been jzed the mistakes committed by the rabid secre- reached in a conference between the Italian and taries of the Left in forcing the religious French premiers at Aix-les-Bains in September, communities out of the cotmtry, and opening the 1920. In July, 1921, a defensive alliance was formed way to disruptive teaching in the State schools, between Belgium and France, the former reserving Negotiations have been entered into with the Holy the risht to remain neutral in all disputes respecting See seeking some arrangement for the congrega- Frencn colonial possessions between France and tions as a measure of necessity and in response to other nations. England had already agreed in the the political requirements of France. Catholic treaty of Versailles to come to the assistance of social service organizations, patronages, etc., are France, if she were again attacked. In November, increasing in numbers and effectiveness. Catholio 1920, the world became aware of an Italo-Franco- artists have combined their forces in organizations British agreement for maintaining spheres of influ- suggestive of the ancient guilds in the production ence in Asiatic Turkey, signed secretly at Sevres of religious art for new and rebuilt churches and on 10 August, 1920. It assigned to France the Catholics in general are prominent pioneers in Sjrrian and Cilician coasts, the hinteriand extend- France's reconstruction. It has been estimated ing across the middle reaches of the Euphrates, that out of the 34,000,000 people in PVance, outside through southern Kurdistan to the undefined fron- of Paris and its suburbs, some 10,000,000 are prac- tiers of Armenia, omitting Mossul. The French ticing Catholics in the strict sense of the word Government had the privilege of exchanging its as compared to 2,0(X),000 out of 32,000,000 seventy rights in the Ba^^dad Railway for the exclusive years ago. For (jatholic statistics see articles on exploitation of railroads within its area of special the ajtshdioceses and dioceses of France, interest. The opposition of the people in France On 14 March, 1920, diplomatic relations between to the maintenance of such a large French army the Vatican and the French Government which in the Near East and the unnecessary military had been broken in 1904, were resumed. The sen- expenditure induced the French Government to timent of France was that the national interest negotiate a secret treaty with the Angora Govern- required the resumption of such relations and that ment, on 9 March, 1921. In return for extensive French diplomacy must have its official share in economic concesaona the French agreed to with- the discussion at the Vatican of questions involving