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French interests; that it could not remain absent of Sebaste, 24 March, 1004. He was named Apostolic from the seat of spiritual government at which Delejgate to Costa Rica, 10 June, 1908. Created the greater number of states were careful to be cardinal priest 6 December, 1915, he received the represented; that the enforcement of the various hat and the title of San Ben^rdo alle Terme three peace treaties made timely the resumption of these days later. On 16 December, 1920, he was trans- relations with the Holv See. The Peace Treaty ferred to Frascati, of which he took possession 16 of Versailles presented problems that must be January, 1921, to succeed His Eminence Cardinal solved, such as the application of the old Concordat Cassetta, appointed 27 November, 1911, d. 23 in AI^ce-Lorraine, the fate of the former German March^ 1919. He resides in Rome. The diocese missions in the colonies in Togoland, Kamerun, and compnses (1920) 35,000 Catholics, 8 parishes, 38 elsewhere, and sJso the safeguarding of the Catholic secular and 115 regular clergy, ^ seminarians, and religion in Morocco. numerous monasteries representing all the great

When Alsace-Lorraine was given over to France orders,

in the Fall of 1918, the French Government was u * « ^, ^ , , ^ t^ ,,* « v

faced with two alternatives of denouncing the Pree Church of Scotland (cf C. E., VI-257b).—

Concordat governing the religious policy of the *^or many years previous to the World War the

German Government in Alsace-Lorraine, or • of question of union with the Established Church of

recognizing it and assuming its obligations. There Scotland had been a burmng one. The war put

are over 1,400,000 Catholics there, opposed to the a stop to the negotiations, which many thought

French separatist regime and to the anti-clerical were on a fair way to success, and since then no

Spirit. On 22 April, 1920, the Government issued °®?^*® **^*i!?^ has been taken. On 31 December,

ecrees, naming Mgr. Ruch as Bishop of Strasburg jSIt^aa* L^^ Church had 1489 congregations,

and Mgr. Pelt as Bishop of Mets. Such a decision 5^,000 members (communicants and connections),

entailed negotiations with Rome. There was be- ^XJt^aiT" -^ schools, with 21,647 teachers and

sides the desire to permanently remove the issue 201,000 pupils. These figures seem to indicate a

of "clericism" from French politics. From the loss »n most particulars, and a lack of healthy

formation of the Radical-Socialist Party in 1901 to growth m number of members, when compared

November, 1919, with the exception of a few min- with statistics taken from the same source (States-

istere, the Government has been in the hands of the P*^s Year-Book), according to which there were,

Earties of the Left, who were united on one issue— »p 1?03, 1675 congreKations, 501,000 members, 2475 ostility to the Catholic Church. The result of Sunday schools, with 26,641 teachers and 344,000 this anti-clerical intolerance upon the political life children. This condition is due in part to defec- of France has been lareely to remove the very tions to the "Wee Frees," who rose from 26 con- type of men needed to give stability and character gregations to 150 in the same period.

♦o fVio PorktiKliV SwPHBNs, The Pretbyterian Churchet, DivUiom and Uniont

-^i liepuDUC. A uu- u ^t *^ Scotland, Ireland. Canada, and America (Phila., 1910);

Mgr. Bonaventuro Cerettl, titular Archbishop of Baltoub. An Historical Account of the Rite and Devkovment

Corinth. -^ - "-— "" ^'" -' ^'^ — '-'- - " "--^ '-^ . - --' - *'K?-


5?* ^"JoS^ ^^^\ ^l ^^^^ 1872, Ordamed 31 nol. Xli (1918-14). 306. ^^^^ SHAUaHNESSY.

March, 1895, and attached to the Congregation

of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. In 1904 he Freiburg, Archdiocbsb op (cf. C. E., VI-264b),

was made a papal chamberlain and Apostolic Dele- in the former archduchy of Baden, which has been

gate to Mexico: later he was auditor of the dele- a republic since 9 November, 1918. According to

gation at Washington, and in April, 1914, was the latest census the population of the city of

appointed titular Archbishop of Philippopolis and Freiburg is 90,000. Within the city limits there

Apostolic delegate to Australia, and New Zealand, are 8 parishes and 3 parochial curacies, and 18

Hfe was consecrated in St. Peter's, Rome, by Car- Catholic churches and chapels. At the present time

dinal Merry del Val, 19 July and solemnly received there are 80 priests stationed at Freiburg, seven of

at Sydney the following year. In May, 1914, he whom are Franciscans. The Vincentian Sisters

was transferred tq the see of Corinth. Recalled (200) have charge of 21 institutions, the Franciscan

to Rome he was appointed Secretary of Extraor- Sisters (81) have 5 institutions, the Sisters of the

dinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. 1917, and the following Holy Cross (180) have 6 institutions. During the

year named Consultor of the Congregation for the Summer term of 1921 the University of Freiburg

Eastern Churches. Mgr. Cerretti was entrusted was attended by 3931 students and has a teaching

with very important missions in the United States body of 175. The members of the Catholic theo-

and Ireland in 1919, and later in Paris, where logical faculty numbered 14, and the students of

through his negotiations advantages were obtained theology 379. Since 1911 the university classes are

for Catholic Missions in the Treaty of Versailles, held in an imposing new building, in which there

M. Charles Jonnart, senator, represents France at is a so-called mensa academica where the students

the Vatican, having been appointed Ambassador can procure cheap, wholesome meals. Mention

Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 18 should also be made of the Sapienz, a residence

May, 1921. for priests who are continuing their studies, and a

Franciscan Order. See Friars Minor. students' home, called "Albertig burse." The Arch- diocese of Freiburg embraces Baden and the prop-

Prascati, Diocbsb op (Tusculanensis; cf. C. E., erty of the Hohenzollems in Prussia. The Cath- VI-243a), in the province of Latium, Central Italy, olics in the archdiocese number 1,340,722. The a suburbicarian see, at present filled by His Emi- civil powers no longer have a voice in the appoint- nence Cardinal Giovanni Cagliero, a Salesian, b. ment of a bishop. There are in the archdiocese 11 January, 1838, in the Diocese of Turin, pupil of 44 deaneries, 894 parishes, 40 parochial curacies and Don BoscO; ordained 14 June, 1862, missionary to 14 chaplaincies with 813 pastors, 37 parochial ad- Patagonia in 1875, was appointed Vicar Apostolic ministrators, 40 curates, 310 vicars who are active of Patagonia, 30 September, 1884, and titular bishop in parish work, and 161 priests employed in other of Ma^dos 13 November foUowinp^, consecrated at capacities. The entire number of secular clergy Turin 7 December; promoted as titular arohbishop in the archdiocese is 1472, of regulara 120.