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was fousht, which resulted in victory for the Ger- On 15 March, 1917, the Tsar abdicated and on 22 mans. The invasion of Galicia by the Russians July, Kerensky became head of the Provisional was more successful. Lemberg was captured on 20 Government. The Germans took advantage of the August and the Austrians were forced to yield disorders that followed to capture Riga on 2 Sep- Galicia by March, 1915. To relieve the Russian tember without striking a blow. The Kerensky pressiu'e on the Austrians the Germans began a Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks coimter-offensive by invading Poland. Warsaw fell who on 16 December signed an armistice with on 4 August, 1915. The Germans prepared to march Germany at Brest-Litovsk. While the negotiations on to Petrograd (St. Petersburg) but they were were ^oing on, the Russian armies were Being de- halted by the Russian trenches in front of Riga, mobilised; the Germans on the other hand, con- Under General von Mackensen the Russians were tinned their advance in Russia and on 19 February, driven out of Galicia during May-June, 1915. 1918, occupied Dwinsk. On 9 February they signed

On the western front the repulse of the Germans a treaty of peace with Ukraine. They overran at the Mame was followed by a period of unre- Livonia and were marching on Petrograd, when the mitting trench warfare. The battle line, six him- Russians finally signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk dred miles long, seemed impregnable, but the on 4 March, 1918.

Germans decided on another great effort to break On the western front in November, 1917, the it. For six months the Crown Prince and his British made a counter-attack on the German line troops struggled in vain to take Verdun. Li July, in the direction of Cambrai, but before they could 1915, a counter-offensive on the part of the Allies consolidate their positions, the Germans launched on the Somme relieved the pressure on Verdun. a counter-attack and the British had to yield more

In the east the Russians were attempting to re- than half the territory which they had won. trieve some of their losses by a "drive" under Gen- On 6 May, 1918, Rumania signed a treaty of eral Brusilov and thoush they conquered Bukowina, peace with Austria and Germany. The peace they were unable to do more than push the Teu- on the eastern front gave Germany a free hand tonic line back from twenty to fifty miles. Now in the west, and the Germans decided to break that Bulgaria had declared war against Servia (14 through the alUed line before America had time October, 1915), Servia was invaded from two sides to send large armies to France. Their object was by Germans and Austrians under von Mackensen to split the British and French forces, to capture and by Bulgarians. Her conquest was soon com- the Channel ports, and force the French to make plete, and nearly all her army captured. The route peace. In the battles of Flanders, of the Aisne, from Berlin to Constantinople was now open, Tur- and of the Oise, they gained 1130 square miles key having in November, 1914, cast her lot with of French territory, and aeain approached the Germany. In March, 1916, Germany declared war Marne. Again they were nurled back by the against Portugal because the latter had seised Ger- French aided by the Americans. In the French man ships interned in her harbors. Upon Rumania's counter-offensive, they were forced to retire and declaration of war on Austria on 27 August, 1916, in the battle of St. Mihiel, lost many men and the (Germans and Austrians retaliated by a prompt much booty to the American army. The Hin- invasion of the coimtry under von Mackensen and denbunz line was now broken and a general retreat von Falkenha3rn. In three weeks Rumania was at from rrance and Belgium began. Austria, over- their feet. In 1916 occurred the long drawn out Bat- whelmed at the Piave, sued for peace. Germany tie of the Somme on the western front between the now stood practically alone in her fight. Turkey British under Haig, and the Germans under BLin- was suing for peace (31 October, 1918), and the denburg. It resulted in the withdrawal of the following nations had declared war on Germany: Germans to the Hindenburg line and the surrender Greece (23 November, 1916), Guatemala (21 April, of a thousand square miles of devastated French 1918), Hayti (12 July, 1918), Honduras (19 July, territory. During April-June, 1917, the Germans 1918), Italy (28 August, 1916), Liberia (4 August, fought all the British offensives by a series of 1917), Panama (7 April, 1917), Portugal (23 Novem- counter offensives. In February, 1915, the Germans ber, 1914), Servia (9 August, 1914), United States declared that the waters around the British Isles (6 April, 1917). Bolivia severed diplomatic rela- constituted a war zone, wherein enemy merchant- tions on 14 April, 1917; Brazil 11 April, 1917; China men would be subject to destruction. What German 14 March, 1917; Ecuador 7 December, 1917; ships remained on high seas after the withdrawal of Guatemala and Nicaragua 19 May, 1917; Peru 5 the fleet to Kiel Canal were either destroyed or October, 1917; Uruguay 7 October, 1917. With sunk, off the coast of Chile in November, 1914, and her line broken and the conouering Allies marching near the Falkland Islands, in December, 1914. On rapidly towards Germany, tne only course was to 31 May, 1916, the German High Seas Fleet under negotiate for peace. The negotiations lasted until Admiral von Scheer slipped out of Kiel Harbor and 5 November, when President Wilson informed the was met by the British battle-cruiser squadron Crermans of the readiness of Marshal Foch to under Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty. Losses were conclude an armistice with accredited German severe on both sides and the Germans returned to agents, and that the allies were ready to make Kiel Harbor. Deprived of the opportunity to use peace. The armistice wassigned on 11 November, 1918. their navy, the Germans were forced to watch the In the meantime there were rumblings of a revo- seizureofthe German colonies in West Africa, Togo, lution in Germany. The Kaiser hurriedly left and Kamerun without much opposition. Japan had Berlin and sought refuge at Spa. News came that on 23 August, 1914, ordered Germany to give up Liebnecht and the Minority Socialists were openly Kiau-chau which she had leased from China, and inciting to rebellion and that mutinies were occur- upon the refusal, bombarded the port, forcing the ring in the navy. On 8 November the Socialists German force to surrender in November, 1914. at Munich under Kurt Eisner deposed King Ludwig, England's naval blockade was retiuned by a Ger- and transformed Bavaria from a monarchy into a man blockade of the English coast by the sub- republic. The next day saw the flight of the marine. The unremitting German submarine Kaiser into Holland, on 9 November, 1918, the warfare led to the entrance of the United States German Imperial Chancellor announced the ap- into the war (6 April, 1917). ^ pointment of Friedrich Ebert as Chancellor and

In the meantime there was revolution in Russia, the plans for a German Constitutional Assembly.