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QBEBOE 349 GBEEOE

at Athens. In 1920-21 the estimate of revenue was vised Constitution on 11 June. From this time the

597,011,196 drachmai; expenditure, 2,005,303,578 regeneration of the country is dated. Venizelos

drachmai, leaving a deficit of 1,408,292,382 drachmai also brought about the Greco-Bulgarian treaty in

(over £2NS,000,000). According to the Minister of 1912 and m the same year a declaration of war on

Finance, the Greek public debt on 31 December, 1920, Turkey. The Greeks obtained a victory at

was: internal debt 1321,834^247 drachmai; foreign Sarantaporon in Southern Macedonia on 22 Octo-

debt 2,241,676306 drachmai; loan made to the ber, took Preveza, Metsovo, and Khimara in

Greek Government for the purchase of the Epirus, hoisted their flag over Mount Athos, and

Saionica-Constantinople Railway 144,752,500 dracK- prevented the Turkish fleet from leaving the Dar-

mai; total, 4,208,263,553 drachmai. With an esti- danelles and the Turkish transports from crossing

mated total Greek population of about 6,000,000, the Mgean, They also took possession of most of

this represents an average per head of about drs. the Turkish islands in the iEgean, including

702, which cannot be considered as excessive. M3i;ilene and Chios, but not of the Southern

Abmt and Navy. — Military service in Greece ia Sporades (Dodecanese). Samos declared its union

compulsory and universal with a few exemptions, with Greece. A two dasrs* struggle at Yenitsa

In 1918 the approximate strength of the army was ended in another Greek victory. On 8 November,

200 fiOQ men, organized in four army corps and a 1912, the Greeks anticipated the Bulgarians by

reserve. Demobilization has not been completed entering Salonica and ending the Turki^ domina-

on account of the large number of troops engaged tion of 482 years over the city. Even after her

in Asia Minor. The navy consists of two warships three allies signed the armistice at Chatalja on

of 13,000 tons each, one of 10,118, three of 5000 3 December, Greece continued hostilities, although

each, and one of 2600 tons, besides thirteen de- participating in the Balkan Conference at London,

stroyers, two submarines, and miscellaneous craft. Outside the Dardanelles the Greeks defeated the

GrOVEBNMBNT. — Greece is a constitutional mon- Turkish fleet; in Epirus they took Parga. Finally

archy, hereditaiy in the male line, or in case of its Yanina surrenderea to them. The Greek forces

extinction in the female line. The Legislative occupied Samos and entered Ar^okastron. In

Chamber of the Buli consists of 316 representa- the midst of these triumphs King George was

tives elected by manhood suffrage, one for every assassinated at Salonica, 18 March, 1913, and was

16,000 inhabitants, for four years. The new con- succeeded by his eldest son, Constantine.

stitution of 1911 re-established the Council of By the treaty of London (30 May, 1913), Greece

State whose functions are the examination of obtained all the Turkish territories west of the

projets de loi and the annulling of official de- Enos-Midia line, except Albania and Oete. The

cisions and acts which may be contrary to law. dissatisfaction caused by the division of spoils led

About this time the Quorum necessary for the to a renewal of the war (30 June) by simultaneous

transaction of business by the Bule was reduced, Bulgarian attacks on the Servians and the Greeks,

reforms of procedure introduced, the electoral law with the object of separating the two allies who

widened, and future revision of the non-funda- on 1 June had signed the treaty of alliance, ac-

mental provisions of the Constitution facilitated, companied by a military convention which King

The King or heir apparent must belong to the Constantine, subsequenUy violated during the

Orthodox Greek Church. For administrative pur- European War. The general staff ordered the Bui-

poses Greece is divided into nomoi (provinces), garian troops garrisoning Salonica to lay down their

each under a nomdrches, an officer whose position arms and upon their refusal besieged their houses,

corresponds to a French prefet, and dimoi and A three days battle ended in a complete defeat of

koindtetes (commimes) with demarchoi and the Bulgarians. Advancing further, the Greeks

pdedroi, or mayors. In Old Greece there are 16 took Doiran and Strumitsa and entered Seres, while

nomoi: in the territory acquired by the Balkan their navy took Kavala and sent up a detachment

Wars fourteen. The nomarches are appointed by to Drama. Soon Macedonia, witn a large strip

the Minister of the Interior. of the Thracian coast, including Dedeagatch, Makri,

Recbnt Hibtoby (1908-1921).— On 7 October, and Porto Lagos, was in their hands. The Treaty

1908, the Greek population in (ilrete repudiated all of Bukarest in 1913 made the mouth of the Mesta

connection with Turkey and declared for union the eastern frontier of Greece, thus securing for

with Greece. An executive committee of five per- her Kavala but leaving Xanthi for Bulgaria,

sons was appointed to carry on the government By the decision of a commission appointed by the

provisionally in the name of the King, until his Powers, Greece lost part of northern Epirus, in-

officials took it over. The interference of the eluding Santi Quaranta, Khimara, Delvino, Premeti,

powers and the prolonged opposition of Turkey Argyrokastron, and Koritsa, captured by the Greeks

produced a strong feeling of disgust and the young during the first Balkan War, together with the islet

officers, convinced that the national interests had of Saseno in the Bay of Valona, which had be-

been sacrificed to the exigencies of party politics, longed to Greece since 1864. The Powers recog-

began to form a "Military League," in 1909, mak- nized Greek sovereignty over the captured islands

ing it the organ of the people in their struggle (except Tenedos, Imbros, and Castellorrizo, which

against the politicians. They demanded radical were to be restored to Turkey) and those still

reforms, the reorganization of the army and navy, occupied by the Italians, contingent upon the evac-

the exclusion of the royal princes from their mili- uation of the south of the new Albanian princi-

tary commands, and the bestowal of the Ministries pality by the Greek forces. The northern Epirots,

of War and Marine «upon officers. At this moment however, declared themselves autonomous, and

a new and powerful figure arrived upon the stage formed a separate government. Although the

of Greek politics, M. Venizelos, a native of Crete. Greek troops evacuated northern Epirus before

The political adviser of the League, he proposed the end of April, fighting continued between the

the summons of a National Assembly to revise Albanians and the autonomous forces. Finally a

the Constitution. Upon the resignation of M. convention was signed on 17 May, 1914, entrusting

Dragoumes, after the opening of the National As- the administration of the two provinces of

sembly, he became prime minister to King George. Argyrokastron and Koritsa to the International

The Second Revisionary National Assembly" Commission of Control for Albania,

which met on 21 January, 1911, adopted the re- The opening of the European War found Greece