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GBEEOE 350 GREECE

in the throes of a nationalistic feeling, hoping that its own and could annex itself to Greece after five by her timely aid she might be rewarded by the years, a plebiscite to be held after two years. The Grcck-spcaking cities of Asia Minor, then oppressed Nationalists under Mustapha Kemal refused to sub- by Turkey. During the critical time at the Dar- mit to the treaty in any form and drove the danelles, however, when the Allies would have French out of Cilicia. So grave did the situation wtilcomed the addition of Greek troops and ships, become that a Greek army, supported by French she hesitated, being dissatisfied with the promises and British fleets, undertook to suppress the Turks of llie Allies. Venizelos was ardently m favor in Asia Minor. The Allies refused to alter the of the Entente and eager to enter the war. On Treaty of Sevres and gave the Turks, under threat the othir hand King Constantine, the husband of of ejection from Europe, ten days in which to sign Queen Sophia, sister of the German emperor, de- it. The period was further extended because of tne clined to cede any territory to Bulgaria to satisfy differences between Greece and Italy over Albania, the Bulgarian demand from the Allies and parted Adalia, and the islands of the Dodocanese. In with his premier (15 March, 1915). In August, 1919 the two countries had entered into a con- however, Venizelos came into power, for the ques- vention defining their aspirations with regard to tion now concerned Servia, who was being over- the Balkans and the Orient. If either failed to whelmed by Mackenscn's forces, and to whom realize her aspirations, the convention was to be Greece was under treaty obligations. The Allies void. When Greek troops crossed into Adalian landed at Salonica 150,000 troops ready to strike territory, on 22 July, 1919, Italy was aroused and at the Bulgarians. But Venizelos had reckoned denounced the convention. The matter was settled without his king and was for the second time by the appointment of a special commission to forced to resign. Armed neutrality was proclaimed, delimit the Adalian boundary. Another conven- Throughout October and November the Allies con- tion signed on 10 August, 1920, between Italy and tinned to bargain with King Constantine and his Greece, the two designated the Dodocanese as puppet ministers. In November the king dissolved Greek with the exception of Castellorizzo and his troublesome pro-Venizelos Parliament. The Rhodes, possession of which would be determined armed neutrality made the situation of the Allies by a plebiscite at the end of fifteen years. Al- at Salonica very precarious, situated as they were though the treaty of Sevres was signed by Greece between the Bulgarian troops and the uncertain on the same day, the dissatisfaction which it caused Greek forces. Finally the Allies resorted to coer- was so profound that the Allies, together with cion and seized the Greek telegraphs and postal delegations from Greece and the rival governments system, the navy being seized in October by the of Turkey, met in London on 21 February, 1921, French, who landed troops at Pirceus. Greece was to consider the advisability of revising the treaty, blockaded. Venizelos repudiated his king, estab- Their proposal to give the Sultan sovereignty over lished a provisional government in Crete and Mace- Smyrna on condition that he respect its rights and donia and on his own account declared war liberties and grant local autonomy to each nation- against Bulgaria (1916). In June, 1917, French ality in its population and allow the Greeks to and British troops entering Thessaly occupied Volo retain a garrison in the town, was spurned by and Larissa and seized the Isthmus of Corinth. Greece who in March, 1921, laimched a mw of- On 11 June Charles Jonnart, formerly French gov- fensive in Asia Minor in a single handed effort ernor of Algeria and now named hi^h commis- to force the Turks to conform to the terms of the sioner of Greece, demanded the immediate abdica- original treaty of Sevres. She was unsuccessful tion of King Constantine and the renunciation of and the war still continues, with hardly a hope the Crown Prince's right of succession. And so of a military decision. The theater of war is so on 12 June Constantine abdicated the throne of vast and so ill-provided with means of communica- Greece in favor of his second son, Alexander, and tion, compared with the maximum forces and trans- later Venizelos became Prime Minister. In July port that either side can muster that there is little all diplomatic relations between the Central Powers prospect that either will be able to defeat its were ruptured, and the Greek army stood ready opponent Greece is waging war overseas, plunging for the great advance from Salonica. In September herself deeper into debt in order to purchase sup- the troops attacked Bulgaria, seized Strumitza, and plies for her army, while the Turks are fighting opened the way to the triumphant Allies. Bui- for their home and living off the land for their garia suddenly sued for peace. The attention of supplies.

the Greeks was now turned to national unity. At Events in Greece during 1920 revolved about the Peace conference at Versailles in 1919 the dynastic and imperialistic problems. The attempted Greek claim to the greater part of Aidin, includ- assassination of M. Venizelos in Paris (12 August, ing Smyrna in Asia Minor, was recognized and 1920), which was part of a scheme to restore Con- Greek troops were landed ^t that port with the stantine to the throne, led to severe rioting in approval of the powers. To her were also given Greece. On 25 October, 1920, King Alexander died the Dodecanese Islands which voted for imion as a result of a bite from a monkey. His younger with Greece. With the consent of the Powers brother Paul was designated as his successor, but she has occupied part of Bulgarian (Western) he refused the throne, much to the consternation Thrace. of the Allies and of Premier Venizelos, who was The treaty of Sevres which was handed to the driven from power in the new elections. On 5 Turkish delegates at Paris on 1 May, 1920, added December the Greek people voted overwhelmingly greatly to Greek territory, as the Turks were to for the return of Constantine, their exiled king, cede Thrace to Greece, except the sanjak (dis- The Allies, especially France and Italy, chagrined trict) of Chatalja and the Derkos water-supply at the turn of events, promptly cut off their financial area, together with Tenedos and Imbros; to recog- support from Greece with the idea of throttling nize as Greek those islands in the ^Egean at the nation. In 1922 Italy and France withdrew present occupied by Greece; to abandon the ad- from Asia Minor, leaving Greece alone in the field, ministration of a considerable area in Asia Minor CJonstitution op the Church op Greece. — ^The comprising Smyrna, Tireh, Odemish, Manisa, organization of the Greek Church is at present Akhissar, Bergama, and Aivali to Greece. The in a transitional state, since there has not yet territory in question was to have a pariiament of (1922) been time or opportunity to adapt or to