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mJAZ 370 HILOABD

B8 are also the Carmelites, Daughters of Wisdom, for science. He made some graduate studies at the Daughters of the Cross, Dominican Nuns, Faithful University of Zurich and at Freiberg in Saxony. Companions of Jesus, Sisters of the Good Shep- After this he spent nearly two years m Spain, and herd, Little Sisters of the Poor, Poor Clares, Poor then returned to America at the age of twenty-three Sisters of Nazareth, Sisters of Charity, Sisters of to take up scientific work here. He had specialized Charity of St. Paul, Sisters of Marie Reparatrice, in geology and chemistry, and accepted the position Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Thomas of Villanova, of assistant State geologist of Mississippi 1856. Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, He remained in the South but for two years, but Society of the Sacred Heart, and Ursulines. St. his genius for observation impressed itself deeply Cuthbert's College is at Ushaw, and St. Cuthbert's on the geology of the region, and he laid the Grammar School at Newcastle-on-Tyne. There are foundation upon which is built the knowledge of boarding schools for girls at Darlington, West Hastle- Gulf Coastal Plain Geology. Professor E. A. Smith, pool, Berwick-on-Tweed, Sunderland, and Newcastle. State Geologist of Alabama, says that Doctor Hil- The Society of the Sacred Heart conducts a train- gard laid the foundation on which most subae- ing school for teachers at Newcastle-on-Tjoie. quent work in the 'Mississippi Embayment,' as he The Central School at Jarrow is imder the Daugh- named it, securely rests." Later lie was to come ters of the Cross. There are in the diocese 270 back to the study of this region when he was put clergy, of whom 221 are secular priests . and 49 in charge of the Cotton Culture Reports of the reffiilars; 188 churches; 46 convents; 2 industrial tenth census. This for the first time introduced schools for boys; 1 industrial school for girls; 1 scientific principles into cotton growing, and his poor-law school for girls from workhouses; 29 reports are still consulted with confidence bv those elementary schools for girls conducted by re- who are interested in the subject. His favorite ligious; 119 public elementary schools receiving subject was chemistry, however, so when offered government grant; 2 secondary schools for bo3rs: the position of chemist in charge of the laboratory 9 secondary schools for girls; 1 hospital conducted of the Smithsonian at Washington he accepted and by Dominican Sisters; 2 houses of mercy in charge spent some two years there. Durine this time he of the Sisters of Mercy; 1 orphanage for boys con- became a convert to the Catholic Church, and re- ducted by the Sisters of Charity; 1 orphanage for mained ever after an ardent Catholic, girls conducted by the Sisters of Nazareth; 2 During the Civil War he was employed as a refuges for penitents; 3 homes for the aged poor chemist in charge of certain work required by the imder the care of the Little Sisters of tne Poor. Southern Confederacy, and immediately after the The following associations are represented in the war he was offered the position of State geologist diocese: Catholic Needlework Guild, Catholic of Mississippi and professor of science at the Uni- Women's League, Catholic* Truth Society, Society versity of that State. He spent some six years for the Propagation of the Faith, and Society of there, when his growing reputation led to an invita- St. Vincent de Paul. tion to teach at the University of Michigan, where

better opportunities for research were afforded him

Hijaz. See Arabia. at a mucn higher salaiy. Here he developed the

department of agriculture and became the pioneer

RUdeshelm, Diocese of (Hildesheimensib; cf. exploiter of the doctrine that agricultural studies C. E., VII-353b), in Germany. Since 1915 the must count correspondingly to other subjects in the see has been administered by the Rt. Rev. Joseph university curriculum, from Michigan he went to Ernst, b. at Grossalgermissen 8 November, 1863, the newly organized agricultural department of the ordained 2 August, 1886, elected 26 May, 1915, con- University of California, where he spent all the secrated 26 September following. In 1920 there rest of his life. He made a series of most important were 213,850 Catholics in the diocese and 2,000,000 investigations on the soils of that State m con- inhabitants who belonged to other denominations, nection with their native vegetation and the It contains 120 parishes, 16 deaneries, 27 curacies, prospect they provided for the growth of other 230 churches and chapels, 230 secular priests, 10 plants. He published a book, "Soils of Arid and regulars, of whom 3 are Augustinians, and 7 Fran- Humid Regions, and came to be the recognised ciscans. The Ursulines have convents at Duder- expert in the United States on "alkali soils, and stflidt, Hildesheim, and Hanover, with 49 professed, especially on their reclamation. Through him the 27 lay nuns, and 9 novicesĀ ; the Sisters of Charity regions that used to be set down in the geographies of St. Vincent de Paul have 53 establishments of two generations ago as desert regions were trans- (mother-house at Hildesheim), with 475 Sisters formed into fertile lands and the so-called Great and 35 novices. American Desert disappeared.

He was a veiy broadly educated man, knowing

Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar, pioneer in scientific Latin and Greek as weU as most of the modem

agriculture in the United States, b. in Bavaria in languages very well. He kept closely in touch with

1833; d. in California in 1916. The yoimgest of a foreign work in his specialty and related scientific

family of four sons and five daughters he came to investigations. He w:^ looked up to as the most

this country with his father, Judge Hilgard, at distinguished authority in scientific agriculture. The

the age of three, when they settled on a farm near imiversities of Mississippi, Michigan, and California,

Belleville, St. Clair County, Ulinois. So many in recognition of his work in those states, as well

Germans of good education, which included a as Columbia, conferred on him the degree of Doctor

knowledge of Latin, had settled there that it was of Laws for agricultural science. The Royal Acad-

called "the Latin settlement." Eugene and his emy of Sciences of Munich awarded him the Liebija;

brothers received their early education from their medal. The International Exposition at Paris

father, who prepared them for entrance to the uni- (1900) awarded him a gold medal. During a long

versity. At the age of sixteen Eugene went to the life of successful devotion to science there was

University of Heidelberg. When just past twenty only one rival in his interest, and that was his

he graduated there, receiving the degree of Doctor devotion to the Church, of which he was a very

of Philosophy with honor summa cum laude. This faithful member and to which he gave considerable

degree was reissued to him in 1903 as a "golden time, for charitable and other religious interests,

degree" in recognition of a half century's good work He declared toward the end of his life that nothing