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number of wage earners was 653,000, and to these in private schools shall be in the English language; 1801,610,000 was paid as wages. The manufactured every organized imiversity, college, academy, semi- products had a value of $5374,007,000; the cost of nary, or other educational institution, whether in- materials was 13,490,021,000, and the number of corporated or unincorporated, shall submit such establishments 18,596. Thirty-five cities in the report to superintendent of pubhc instruction as State are the seats of manufacturing establishments, he may require.

The value of manufactured products in Chicago in Recent History. — ^The year 1911 will always be

1919 was 13,658,740,000, as against $1,483,498,000 in remembered in Illinois history for the political

1914. In 1919 the Lake traffic in Chicago was 12,- bitterness rising out of the accusation of election

194,194 tons in and out, as against a tonnage of bribery brought against Senator Lorimer. A resolu-

9,582,000 for London (excluding coastwise trade), tion was offered in the United State Senate to

13,671,000 for Liverpool (including Birkenhead), declare his seat vacant on the ground that he. had

and 8,918,667 for Hamburg. There were 5,048,780 not been duly or legally elected. The Senate rc-

tons of iron ore received at the port of Chicago fused to unseat him oy a vote of 46 to 40. Later

during the year 1919. Illinois had 5898 oil wells the investigation was re-opened and Senator Lori-

1 January, 1918, with a total product in 1917 of mer was finally deprived of his seat in July, 1912.

15,770,641 barrels. Partial woman suffrage was granted in 1913, also

Education. — ^The endowment fund of the State mothers' pensions, ownership of public utilities, and

University amounted to $649,012 in 1918. It has 51 workmen s compensation. In 1917 a fierce race riot

buildings, 751 professors, and a student body of broke out in East St. Louis between the whites

7157. There are six normal schools at Carbondale. and the negroes who had immigrated into the

Normal, Chicago, De Kalb, Charleston, ana North from the South to take advantage of war-

Macomb. In 1918 there were in Illinois 11,889 stimulated industries in the manufacturing district,

public elementary schools, in which there were In 1920 a referendum from the voters brought a

33,653 teachers, of whom 4656 were men and 28,997 decision in favor of making the initiative and refer-

were women. The male teachers received (1916) endum, as well as municipal ownership of public

about $10624 per month, and the females $88.18. utilities, a part of the State constitution. The State

In the year 1918 the total cost of the public schools Legislature ratified the national prohibition amend-

was $51,506,043, which is a cost of $3929 for every ment 14 January, 1919, the twenty-sixth State to

pupil. In the same year there were 651 high schools, do so. The Federal suffrage amend, lent was rati-

enrolling 112,557 pupils and 4476 teachers. Recent fied 10 June, 1919, but an error in the State's certifi-

legislative changes mclude statewide pensioning of cation caused a re-ratification 17 June, 1919.

teachers and a free public high school education Illinois put into the nationstl service a total of

for every pupil in Illinois (1915). Bible reading 314,504 men and bo3rs; 24,663 in the navy, 3,678

in the public schools is excluded by dwcree of the in the marines, and 286,163 in the army, the thou-

Supreme Court (20 July, 1910). The assets of the sand volunteers who entered the service as officers

University of Chicago are $32,000,000. In the through the various training camps being excluded,

scholastic year 1919-^ the number of enrolled stu- While the Selective Draft Act was adopted, 56.6

dents was 9032. The university has a library of per cent of the men who went from Illinois (178,-

570,000 volumes. In 1919 Northwestern Uiyversity 143) volunteered, and only 43.3 per cent (136,361)

had 4759 enrolled students. In the same year there were drafted. With but 5.5 per cent of the popu-

were in Illinois 35 collegiate institutions with 2495 lation of the United States, Illinois took 7 per

instructors and 24,875 students. cent of the nation's loan. Of the expeditionary

Catholic Education. — ^For parochial school statis- force 201 officers and 4065 men died, 12 officers

tics see Chicago, Archdiocese of; Belleville, Dio- and 192 men were taken prisoners and 504 officers

CESB of; Alton, Diocesb of; Peoria, Diocbsb of; and 13,290 men were wounded. The 1918 war

RocKFORD^ Diocesb of. Loyola University (q. v.) crop was the greatest in money value ever produced

Chicago, IS the largest Catholic educational institu- by any State in America.

tion in Illinois. De Paul University, Chicago, is Ecclesiastical History. — In the ecclesiastical conducted by the Vincentians. These and other in- province of Chicago, co-extensive with the State stitutions around the city will be affiliated with the of Illinois, there were (1921): 1 archbishop, 6 University of St. Marys of the Lake, now under bishops, 1,680 priests, 230 ecclesiastical students, construction at Area, a Chicago suburb, which is 972 churches, 63 missions without churches, about planned to be the greatest Catholic educational 120 chapels, 4 training schools for boys, 5 industrial center in America. This xmiversity, founded 1844, schools for girls; 1 school for mutes, 8 infant asy- went out of existence during the Civil War, but its lums, 1 industrial and reform school, 187,136 young charter was never revoked, and it is being revised people under Catholic care, 1 working boys home, in the $10,000,000 project now in course of execu- 3 working girls homes, 14 homes for the aged, 55 tion. The Augustinians, Benedictines, Franciscans, hospitals and a Catholic population of 1,486,216. Resurrectionists, Carmelite Fathers, Clerics of St. Principal Religious Denominations. — ^The re- Viator, and Fathers of the Order of Charity also ligious census of 1916 gives a total population of conduct colleges in Illinois. The total number of 6,152,257, of whom 3,629384 did not attend any colleges and academies for boys in the State is 17, church. Members of all denominations numbered with an attendance of 8007; for eirls 41, attendance 2,522,373, of whom 1,171,381 were Catholics; of 7894; there are 533 parochial schools with 180,652 Greek Orthodox there were 15,050; Methodists of pupils. Figuring the cost of educating every Cath- all kinds, 324,783; Lutherans of all kinds, 223374; olic pupil at $3929, which is the cost under the Baptists, 180,807; Presbyterians, 170,271; Disciples, public school system, there is an annual saving to 116,639; German Evangelists, 71,274; Congrega- the State by the Catholic educational system of tionalists, 57,926; Protestant Episcopalians, 40,725; $7,097317.08. Unitarians, 1593; Quakers, 1849; others, 1,201,299.

The State laws governing private and parochial The total number of church organizations (parishes,

schools are as follows: no public appropriation shall etc.), in Illinois in 1916 was 9294; church edifices

ever be made in aid of any school controlled by 8584; value $103,613,316; debt $12,953,904.

any church or sectarian denomination (VIII. 3) ; Public Institutions. — ^The two new hospitab for

instruction in the elementary branches of education the insane were recently opened at Dunning and