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IMMAOTJIiATE HEABT 390 XMBCAOtTlAATE HEABT

teaching tbem Christian doctrine or serving as Conception. The unanimous choice of the corn- interpreters; at Rimouski (foimded 1018) are a munity was the name Sisters Servants of the Im- postulate» diocesan office of the Holy Childhood, maculate Heart of Mary, by which Uiey were closed retreats for young girls, and apostolic school henceforth known. In April, 1855, the Redemp- for aspirants to the missions; at Jollette (founded torists left Monroe, and there was no stationary 1919) are a postulate, diocesan office of the Holy priest for seven months. In November, 1857, Fr. Childhood, and adoration of the Most Bleased Joos was appointed director of the Sisters. Sacrament; at Quebec (founded 1919) are a postu- Their first parochial school was opened in con- late, diocesan office of the Holy Childhood, and nection with St. Michael's Church, and their first closed retreats; at Vancouver (foimded 1921) is a mission outside Monroe was at Vienna, Michigan, school for Chinese sick in their homes and in hos- where they labored from 1855 to 1858. In the pitals. In China the Sisters have schools for latter year they were called to the Penncfylvania Christian and pagan children, nurseries, an orphan- missions. At the request of Fr. Vincent O'Reilly age, a dispensary, refuge for aged women, and and with the permission of Bishop Neumann of catechumenate at Canton (founded 1909), a lasar- Scranton, and Bishop Lefevre of Detroit, the Sisters etto caring for 900 male and female lepers at under Sister M. Nfagdalen took charge of St. Sheklung near Canton (founded 1912), and a Joseph's Academy, Penn., and opened a novitiate nursery caring for 3200 babies annually at Tong- there. A novitiate, parochial school for bojrs and Shan, near Canton (founded 1916). The Sisters girls were established at Reading, Penn., in 1859. opened a Chinese general hospital at Manila, In that same year the ^Sisters oecame diocesan. Pnilippine Islands, in 1921. Reading remained the mother-house and novitiate

for all the Sisters of the Inmiaculate Heart in Immaculate Heart, Sisters Servants of thb Pennsylvania, until 1871, when a new foundation (cf. C. E., VII-167c).-— One of the pioneer was made in the Scranton Diocese imder BisAiop educational orders of the United States, first estab- O'Hara. The novitiate and mother-house for lished in Monroe, Michigan, by Fr. Louis Gilet, a Scranton, temporarily located at Laurel Hill Redemptorist. Bishop Lefevre, of Detroit, had Academy, Susquehanna, was transferred to St. asked the Redemptorists of Baltimore for aid in Cecilia Academy, Scranton (1872), and to St. Rose's work among the French Canadians, and Fr. Gilet Convent, Carbondale (1876), and permanently fixed was appointed to found a mission at Monroe, a at Mt. St. Mary's in 1902. The novitiate and French Canadian settlement without priests. Nor mother-house for Philadelphia were transferred from were there anv schools, and realizing this need Reading in 1872 to Villa Maria Academy, West Fr. Gilet asked Teresa Maxis, of Baltimore, who Chester, erected in that year. In an effort to had signified to him her desire to consecrate her effect a reunion of the houses in Pennsylvania with life to God, to undertake the education of the chil- the mother-house at Monroe, Mother M. Teresa, dren of Monroe. She arrived in the summer of foundress of the congregation, went to the convent 1845 and was soon joined by Charlotte Ann Schaaf, of the Grey Nuns of (Jttawa, where she remained also of Baltimore, who was desirous to undertake eighteen years, but finally rejoined her community the same work. Their modest dwelling was a log at Villa Maria, where she died in 1892. cabin, and here they earnestly prepared for the The first orphan allium was erected at Monroe religious life. They made their vows 30 November, in 1860; St. Patrick's Orphanage at West Scranton ana were established under the patronage of the was erected in 1875. Tne Sisters' work was thus Immaculate Conception as Sisters of Providence, extended to the care of orphans, and in 1890 they They were given a rule founded on the rule of established St. Joseph's Foundling Home in Scran- St. Alphonsus, prepared by Fr. Gilet and approved ton. The care of children of Slovak and Lithuanian by Bishop Lefevre. Their habit was patterned on immigrants, who had come in large numbers to the that of the Notre Dame Sisters, with scapular Unitwl States during the latter part of the nine- ndded. The third member of the community was teenth century, was also included in their work, Teresa Renauld, whose home was nearby, and and with their aid were founded the Daughters of who made her vows 8 December. The school was Sts. Cyril and Methodius (q. v.) for the Christian opened in a log cabin adjoining the Sisters' dwel- education of Slovak children, and the Lithuanian ling on 15 January, 1846. Their first benefactor Sisters of St. Casimir (q.v.). The Sisters also was Mme. Josette Godfroy Smith, sister of the undertook the aid of foreign missions in training mayor of Monroe, who disposed of her estate in the Tercsian Sisters in religious life. For this pur- favor of the community, and became a member of pose three of the community, with Sister M. it as Sister M. Alphonsine 26 May, 1846. This Stanislaus (d. 1917) as mistress of novices, spent gift and the proceeds of a mission given by Fr. two years at MaryknoU. The work was then given Uilet in New Orleans enabled the Sisters to erect over to Dominican nuns. Novices of the Oblates a new convent in 1847. Two more novices were of Divine Providence vq.v.) are received into the received in 1849, and gradually the number of novitiate at Mar3rwood, and are there trained as members was increased to twelve in 1855 and efficient teachers and religious to labor among their twenty-six in 1863. The Sisters were under the own colored people. The Sisters are now asked spiritual direction of Fr. Gilet, and sustained a to co-operate m tne foundation of a new congrega- ^eat loss upon his return to Baltimore in 1847. tion of religious to care for foreigners, to follow He later crossed to Europe, and as Fr. Mary the Passiomsts* rule, conduct homes for foreign Celestine became a Cistercian (1858) in the Abbey girls, take care of orphanages, and teach catechism of Hautecombe, Savoy, where he died in 1892. to children, preparing them for the Sacraments. His co-laborer in the foundation of the young In the pursuit of higher education the Sisters community in Monroe was Fr. Francis Poilvache, take summer courses at universities, and a very who succumbed to the epidemic of fever in 1849. large percenta^^e of them hold degrees from col- His cause of beatification is being advanced in leges and universities of international standing. Rome. The Sisters came under the spiritual direc- They conduct St. Mary's College for women (char- tion of Fr. Smulders (,d. 1900). They petitioned tered 1906) at Monroe, Mich., Mar5rwood College, him in 1847 to give them a title that would dis- Scranton (chartered 1917), and Villa Maria College, tinguish them in their devotion to the Immaculate Immaculata (chartered 1920). The Sisters opened