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their first house in New York in 1913, when they Canon Sante Minganti, liturgist; Rev. Eduardo

took charge of St. Alphonsus' School St. Michaers Betelli, famous Latinist and Giovanni Gambetti,

Industrial School at Falls. Wyoming Co., Penn^ doctor of sociology.

was erected in 1916 for tne care, education, and In 1921 the diocese contained 125,000 Catholics,

general training of the homeless, dependent boys 123 parishes, 154 churches, 5 monasteries and 1 con-

of the Scranton Diocese. The care of the Most vent for men, 4 monasteries and 18 convents for

Blessed Sacrament School in Trenton, N. J., was women with 246 Sisters, 236 secular i)riests, 28

accepted bv the Sisters of Villa Maria for January, regulars and 10 lay brothers. There is in the

1922, and during the summer of 1921 arrangements diocese 1 diocesan and interdiocesan seminary

were completed for the opening of an academy at with 30 seminarians, also 4 colleges for men (154

Lima, Peru. Their social service work includes the students), 17 for women (257 students). The fol-

establishment by the Scrsmton community at lowing charitable institutions exist in the diocese:

charge of the Sisters in 1920, and a day nursery t«.**^4^-««*- n / ^ n t? Trrr Ancux

opened. The Sisters aided in the influenza epidemic Impedimeiits, Canonical (cf. C. E., VII-695b).--

in 1918 by nursing the sick in their homes. For Matrimonial impediments can be abrogated,

a few days in the early summer young women's derogated from, or dispensed from only by the

retreats are held. Holy See, or by inferiors enjoymg that power by

Dependent on the mother-house at Monroe are common canon law or special Apcwtohc mdult. Any

establishments in the dioceses of Cleveland and custom mtroducmg a , new impedimen^this hap-

Detroit. These are in charge of 461 Sisters and P!?!^?_ ^°!_ ^^^^^5^i^u^ii® f?!?! .^Ll^^^

80 novices and postulants, an' ~~ " '^ " '"

1 academy, 1 boys' boarding

high schools, 1 normal school

41 parochial elementary schools, with 22,239 pupils. -,«,.,. ^r ^i.. * j ^ _xt- j - ^ xu

There are 748 Sisters, 92 novices, and 26 postu- ful affimty m the third and fourth degree of the

lants in the community with mother-house at Villa ^^^^^^^ HV" ^u^ "^^Jawful affimty m aU cases;

Maria, West Chester. They have a summer-house t. 1^\ P"^^*® honesty , or decency ansmg from

in the Diocese of Trenton and the following estab- betrothal or valid marriage. Important chang^

lishments in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia and ^^^e been introduced also regarding the impejii-

the Diocese of Harrisburg: 1 college, 3 academies, ^/^^ of forbidden times, age, adoption, disparity

4 high schools, 62 parochial schools, 2 nurseries, 2 ^\ worship, abduction, spiritual relationship and

houses for settlement work, a Catholic Children's ^"?^®- Formerly an impediment to mamage was

Home Bureau. They have 32,000 pupils under f aUed public or occult,^ accordmg .as there was

instruction » *' *- jj|.^lg ^^ much difficulty m proving it; but now, if

The community with mother-house at Scranton ^V^l ^ ^'^^A u ^ ^f^^^^ ^°^.f '. irrespective

numbers 438 Sistera, 48 novices, and 13 postulants, <>^^^® ^^^^ or difficulty of doing so, it is considered

with the following foundations in the Archdioceses P^^hc, otherwise it is occult. . ^u •

of New York and Oregon City and the Dioceses of ^^^^ ??^""^°r^5,^ impediments are of the minor

Altoona, Boise, Harr^burg, Pittsburgh, Syracuse, «^T' ^^f s * ® °^*^°*- • °!l ^li} a i°^^°'

Scranton, and Seattle: 1 college, 6 academies, 14 grade are: (a) consanguinity m the third degree

parochiaf high schools, 32 parochial elementary of collateral line ; (b) afciityin the second degree

schools, 1 boys* industrial school, 3 orphan asylum^ 9^ \t® collateral line; (c) pubhc honesty or decency

1 infant home, 1 day nursery, 1 sodality home. i? *.Hif ^£i'^T^^'- '*^ T^ 5^ ""t^"^ '"^ ^"T'^f

The Rules and Constitution approved in 1889, t^*. the Code tas mtroduced new concepts. of

received the "Decretum laudis" in 1913, and were ""^'^ ^^^ public honesty, the former now arising

finally approved by the Holy See, 26 July, 1920. ^" ^ 7°"" *°^ vahd marriage, while the latter arises

The Diamond Jubilee of the Congregation (10 ^^^^ ^l^P' ^^ ^?y^^^^ marriage, or from notorious

November, 1920), was publicly celebrat^ in May, ?I,P"^i;^ lriS^^T^^\^^i^^'^^^

jg2i ' » «- ^ jf (gj cnme arising from adultery with a promise of,

or an attempt at, marriage, even by a merely civil

XmnUgrants, Cathouc Carb of. See Ambbi- contract, with the associate in sin. All other impe-

CAMiZATioN. diments are of the major order. The distinction

Imola, DiocESB of (Imolbnsis: cf. C. e., *>f'7®^ *® *^° ^'^^1*'^ ™R^'™^°t? "* ^ ™*J*^'

VII-«82d), in Central Italy, suffragan to Bologna, of. importance only when a dispensation (q.v.) is

The present administrator of the diocese is the °*i55-f°'if i • ^- i ^i. -x- i.

Et. Rev. Giovanni TribbiolU, b. at Cortona, 13 ,. ^^'^, *^^ supjeme eccl^iastical authonUes have

December, 1868, ordained 28 June, 1891, elerted ^^. «xcliBive right of establishing prohibitive or

9 ApriL 1913, consecrated at Rome 4 May follow- <ljn'nent impediments for baptized persons, by way

ing, published 25 May, 1914. During the World <^ ""versal or particular law, bidio^ may forbid

Wir 60 priesto and 11 i^minarians joined the army, '^arr'age to ^Y Pe«on residing in their temtoiy

Of these 4 were killed, many wounded and diveni *?<^ ^ ^u^'J *l^ subjects while away from. their

were decorated. A permanent home was estab- ^o^' but they can do so only in a particular

lished for the soldieraT also an asylum for the war ^' temporarily, and as long as .a just cause lasts,

orphans. The following clergymen of note have Af, examples of just causes canonists cite the prob-

died since 1910: Fran^co Baldassari. Bishop of *^^« existence of a hidden impediment, the danger

Imola, distinguished scholar and art critic in ?J,f^*°?* ^'^ ^^ °/ f^'u-S^.u^P ^^W^^^- ,*■

November, 1912; Rev. Domenico Selvatici, weU bishop, however, can only forbid the mamaee under

known the^jlogian and man of letters; Rev. karco rt*^K^ '" ^^ ?f" not render it invaliH, unless

Morelli, writer and founder of the Society of the 5f ,^o>^^,?5r*l"^ 1"^"*^* *° ^° i~ ^^ \\^

Handmkids of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus; Canon J^'^ ^^: ^^J- ^^^ **>« ««?"**« "^'"^^ "^ ^

Luigi Albertazzi, writer and theologian; Rev. ^'^^^J^tf^f^ZLian <New Yoric. m.): OTJok-

Giovanni Biondl, a zealous and saintly pastor; nbll, Impedient impediments in Irish Eccl. Rec, XII (1918).